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Chapter 011

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Potter & Perry: Fundamentals of Nursing, 7th Edition Test Bank Chapter 11: Developmental Theories MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A nurse who wants to apply a theory that relates to moral development should read more from the work of: 1. Gould 2. Freud 3. Erikson 4. Kohlberg ANS: 4 Kohlberg developed a theory on moral development. Gould developed a theory on psychosocial development. Freud developed a theory on psychosexual development. Erikson developed a theory on psychosocial development. DIF: A REF: 144
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  Potter & Perry: Fundamentals of Nursing, 7 th  Edition Test Bank Chapter 11: e!elopmental Theories #$T%P$E C'%CE 1.A nurse who wants to apply a theory that relates to moral development should read more from the work of:1.Gould 2.Freud 3.Erikson 4.Kohler! A #:4Kohler! developed a theory on moral development. Gould developed a theory on  psy$hoso$ial development. Freud developed a theory on psy$hose%ual development. Erikson developed a theory on psy$hoso$ial development.&'F:A(EF:144)*+:Knowled!e,)-: ursin! -ro$ess: Assessment#/: /0E test plan desi!nation: #afe Effe$tive /are Environment#taff Edu$ation2.,he nurse usin! Erikson5s theory to assess a 267year7old $lient5s developmental status e%pe$ts to find whi$h of the followin! ehaviors81./opin! with physi$al and so$ial losses2.En9oys parti$ipatin! in the $ommunity3.Applyin! self to learnin! skills4.)ver$omin! a sense of !uilt or frustrationA #:2A$$ordin! to Erikson the youn! adult is in the intima$y versus isolation sta!e of development. ,his is the time in whi$h the youn! adult $an e$ome fully parti$ipative in the $ommunity en9oyin! adult freedom and responsiility. /opin! with physi$al and so$ial losses is found in Erikson5s inte!rity versus despair sta!e old a!e; of development.Applyin! themselves to learnin! produ$tive skills is a $onsistent ehavior found in Erikson5s industry versus inferiority sta!e < to 11 years; of development. A$$ordin! to Erikson over$omin! a sense of !uilt or frustration is in the initiative versus !uilt sta!e 3 to < years; of development.&'F:A(EF:146)*+:/omprehension,)-: ursin! -ro$ess: Assessment#/: /0E test plan desi!nation: #afe Effe$tive /are Environment#taff Edu$ation3.,he nurse re$o!ni=es that Freud5s theory approa$hes development y lookin! at:1.oral reasonin!. osy items and derived items > 266? 266@ y osy 'n$. an affiliate of Elsevier 'n$.  ,est *ank 2.0o!i$al maturity3.-sy$hose%ual aspe$ts4./o!nitive developmentA #:3Freud5s theory of personality development approa$hes development y lookin! at  psy$hose%ual aspe$ts. Kohler!5s theory approa$hes development y lookin! at moral reasonin!. Gould5s theory approa$hes development y lookin! at lo!i$al maturity. -ia!et5s theory approa$hes development y lookin! at $o!nitive development.&'F:A(EF:13)*+:Knowled!e,)-: ursin! -ro$ess: Assessment#/: /0E test plan desi!nation: #afe Effe$tive /are Environment#taff Edu$ation4.A$$ordin! to -ia!et a pres$hool $hild 3 to @ years old; who $omes to the $lini$ is e%pe$ted y the nurse to e%hiit whi$h of the followin! ehaviors81.Far7rea$hin! prolem7solvin! 2.E%ploration of the environment 3./ooperation and sharin! with others 4.,hinkin! with the use of symols and ima!es A #:4A$$ordin! to -ia!et the preoperational $hild a!e 2 to B years; is learnin! to think with the use of symols and mental ima!es. )r!ani=ation of thou!hts and far7rea$hin!  prolem7solvin! are noted in -ia!et5s formal operations 11 years to adulthood; sta!e of $o!nitive development. A$$ordin! to -ia!et the $hild e%plores the environment in the sensorimotor sta!e irth to 2 years; of $o!nitive development. /ooperation and sharin! are seen in -ia!et5s $on$rete operations a!e B to 11 years; sta!e of $o!nitive development.&'F:A(EF:142)*+:/omprehension,)-: ursin! -ro$ess: Assessment#/: /0E test plan desi!nation: #afe Effe$tive /are Environment#taff Edu$ation@.For an older adult $lient an e%ample of a $ommon ehavioral task or $riti$al event is:1.#ele$tin! a mate2.(earin! $hildren3.Findin! a $on!enial so$ial !roup4.Ad9ustin! to de$reasin! physi$al stren!thA #:4A $ommon ehavioral task of the older adult $lient is ad9ustin! to de$reasin! physi$al stren!th.#ele$tin! a mate is a developmental task $ommonly seen in the early adult. (earin! $hildren is a developmental task of the middle7early adult. Findin! a $on!enial so$ial !roup is a developmental task of the middle7early adult. osy items and derived items > 266? 266@ y osy 'n$. an affiliate of Elsevier 'n$. 1172  ,est *ank &'F:A(EF:13B)*+:/omprehension,)-: ursin! -ro$ess: Assessment#/: /0E test plan desi!nation: #afe Effe$tive /are Environment#taff Edu$ation<.,he nurse workin! in an adult medi$al $lini$ wishes to learn more aout a developmentaltheory that fo$uses on the adult years. ,he nurse investi!ates different possiilities and sele$ts the theory proposed y:1.Gould2.-ia!et3.Freud4./hess and ,homasA #:1Gould5s theory of psy$hoso$ial development spe$ifi$ally fo$uses on the adult years. -ia!et5s theory fo$used on $o!nitive development throu!hout the life span. Freud5s  psy$hose%ual theory fo$used on personality development throu!hout the life span. ,he theory of /hess and ,homas fo$used on development from $hildhood to early adulthood.&'F:A(EF:142)*+:Knowled!e,)-: ursin! -ro$ess: Assessment#/: /0E test plan desi!nation: #afe Effe$tive /are Environment#taff Edu$ationB.,he nurse re$o!ni=es that whi$h one of the followin! statements aout !rowth and development is $orre$t81.&evelopment ends with adoles$en$e.2.Growth refers to Cualitative events.3.&evelopmental tasks are a!e7related a$hievements.4./o!nitive theories fo$us on emotional development.A #:3D&evelopmental tasks are a!e7related a$hievements is a $orre$t statement aout !rowth and development. uman !rowth and development are orderly predi$tale pro$esses  e!innin! with $on$eption and $ontinuin! until death. Growth refers to Cuantitative events. &evelopment refers to Cualitative events. /o!nitive theories fo$us on reasonin! and thinkin! pro$esses.&'F:A(EF:13B)*+:/omprehension,)-: ursin! -ro$ess: Assessment#/: /0E test plan desi!nation: #afe Effe$tive /are Environment#taff Edu$ation.'n Kohler!5s oral &evelopment theory an individual who rea$hes level '' $onventional thou!ht; is e%pe$ted to e%hiit:1.Asolute oedien$e to authority osy items and derived items > 266? 266@ y osy 'n$. an affiliate of Elsevier 'n$. 1173  ,est *ank 2.(easonin! ased on personal !ain3.-ersonal internali=ation of other5s e%pe$tations4.#elf7$hosen ethi$al prin$iples universality and impartialityA #:3At level ''$onventional thou!ht the person sees moral reasonin! ased on his or her own personal internali=ation of so$ietal and others5 e%pe$tations. 'n sta!e 1 the $hild5s response to a moral dilemma is in terms of asolute oedien$e to authority and rules. At level 'pre$onventional thou!htthe person refle$ts on moral reasonin! ased on  personal !ain. A$$ordin! to Kohler! sta!e < is when a person has self7$hosen ethi$al  prin$iples universality and impartiality.&'F:A(EF:144)*+:/omprehension,)-: ursin! -ro$ess: Assessment#/: /0E test plan desi!nation: #afe Effe$tive /are Environment#taff Edu$ation?.A$$ordin! to -ia!et the infant is in the first period of development whi$h is $hara$teri=ed y:1./on$rete operations2.-reoperational thou!ht3.#ensorimotor intelli!en$e4.'dentity versus role $onfusionA #:3A$$ordin! to -ia!et the infant is in the first period of development whi$h is $hara$teri=ed y sensorimotor intelli!en$e. A$$ordin! to -ia!et $hildren a!es B to 11 are in the $on$rete operations period of development whi$h is $hara$teri=ed y havin! the aility to perform mental operations while $hildren a!es 2 to B are in the preoperational  period of development whi$h is $hara$teri=ed y the $hild learnin! to think with the use of symols and mental ima!es. 'dentity versus role $onfusion is a developmental sta!e puerty; a$$ordin! to Erikson.&'F:A(EF:142)*+:Knowled!e,)-: ursin! -ro$ess: Assessment#/: /0E test plan desi!nation: #afe Effe$tive /are Environment#taff Edu$ation16.A $hild5s understandin! of the $on$ept of i$e e$omin! water -ia!et5s sta!e of $o!nitive development is seen in:1.#ensorimotor 2.-reoperational3.Formal operations 4./on$rete operationsA #:4 osy items and derived items > 266? 266@ y osy 'n$. an affiliate of Elsevier 'n$. 1174

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