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Potter & Perry: Fundamentals of Nursing, 7th Edition Test Bank Chapter 15: Critical Thinking in Nursing Practice MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following best reflects the philosophy of critical thinking as taught by a nurse educator to a nursing student? 1. “Think about several interventions that you could use with this client.” 2. “Don’t draw subjective inferences about your client—be more objective.” 3. “Please think harder—there is a single solution for which I am looking.” 4. “Trust your f
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  Potter & Perry: Fundamentals of Nursing, 7 th  Edition Test Bank Chapter 1: Criti!al Thinking in Nursing Pra!ti!e #$T%P$E C'%CE 1.Which of the following best reflects the philosophy of critical thinking as taught by a nurse educator to a nursing student?1.“Think about several interventions that you could use with this client.” 2.“Dont draw sub!ective inferences about your client be #ore ob!ective.”$.“%lease think harder there is a single solution for which & a# looking.”'.“Trust your feelings dont be concerned about trying to find a rationale to supportyour decision.”()*+1The nurse educator is asking the student to synthesi,e critical thinking skills by encouraging the student to e-a#ine alternatives to #eet the clients uniue needs within the conte-t of the nursing process. Drawing inferences is a specific critical thinking co#petency used in diagnostic reasoning. The educator who tells the student not to draw inferences is not allowing the student to practice co#petencies necessary for specific critical thinking in clinical situations. The critical thinker will look beyond a single solution to a proble#. &ntuition develops as ones clinical e-perience increases. The nursing student should e-a#ine rationales in order to #ake good decisions.D&/+0/+213456+(nalysisT4%+)ursing %rocess+ (ssess#ent7*0+)089: test plan designation+ *afe; ffective 0are nviron#ent2.The second co#ponent of critical thinking in the “critical thinking #odel” is+1.-perience2.0o#petencies$.*pecific knowledge'.Diagnostic reasoning()*+1-perience is the second co#ponent of critical thinking in the “critical thinking #odel.” The third co#ponent of the “critical thinking #odel” is co#petencies. *pecific knowledge base is the first co#ponent of the “critical thinking #odel.” Diagnostic reasoning is a specific critical thinking co#petency in clinical situations.D&/+(/+222456+<nowledgeT4%+)ursing %rocess+ (ssess#ent7*0+)089: test plan designation+ *afe; ffective 0are nviron#ent 7osby ite#s and derived ite#s = 2>>; 2>>@ by 7osby; &nc.; an affiliate of lsevier &nc.  Test 5ank $.The nurse enters the roo# of a client who has a history of heart disease. 4n looking at theclient; the nurse feels that so#ething is “not right” with the client and proceeds to take the vital signs. This is the nurse acting on+1.&ntuition2.eflection$.<nowledge'.*cientific #ethodology()*+1&ntuition is an inner sensing that so#ething is so; as in this e-a#ple. eflection is the  process of purposefully thinking back or recalling a situation to discover its purpose or #eaning. <nowledge of the nurse includes infor#ation and theory fro# the basic sciences; hu#anities; behavioral sciences; and nursing. *cientific #ethodology is an approach to seeking the truth or verifying that a set of facts agrees with reality.D&/+(456+0o#prehensionT4%+)ursing %rocess+ (ssess#ent7*0+)089: test plan designation+ *afe; ffective 0are nviron#ent'.The nurse #anager has developed a staff protocol for peer evaluation. The nurses on her surgical unit are nervous about using her instru#ent. &f the nurse #anager continues to i#ple#ent the new strategy; which of the following critical thinking attitudes is she  portraying?1.Au#ility2.iskBtaking $.(ccountability'.&ndependent thinking()*+2This is an e-a#ple of the critical thinking attitude of riskBtaking. ( critical thinker is willing to take risks in trying different approaches to solving proble#s. Au#ility is a critical thinking attitude in which a person ad#its what they do not know and tries to acuire the knowledge needed to #ake proper decisions. To be accountable #eans to be answerable for the outco#es of your actions. To think independently; one uestions others ways of interpreting knowledge and looks for rational and logical answers to  proble#s.D&/+(/+22'456+0o#prehensionT4%+)ursing %rocess+ %lanning7*0+)089: test plan designation+ *afe; ffective 0are nviron#ent@.The nurse is working with a client who has recently had a colosto#y and is having difficulty using the provided supplies. The nurse works with the client to see which alternative supplies are easier for the client to use. This is an e-a#ple of the critical thinking strategy of+1.&nference2.7anage#ent 7osby ite#s and derived ite#s = 2>>; 2>>@ by 7osby; &nc.; an affiliate of lsevier &nc. 1@B2  Test 5ank $.%roble#Bsolving'.Diagnostic reasoning()*+$This is an e-a#ple of the critical thinking strategy of proble#Bsolving. The nurse gathers infor#ation fro# the client and co#bines that infor#ation with what the nurse already knows about osto#y care to find a solution. ffective proble#Bsolving involves the e-a#ination of alternatives. &nference is the process of drawing conclusions. 7anage#ent is not a critical thinking strategy. Diagnostic reasoning is a process of deter#ining a clients health status after the nurse assigns #eaning to the behaviors;  physical signs; and sy#pto#s presented by the client.D&/+(/+21456+0o#prehensionT4%+)ursing %rocess+ (ssess#entC&#ple#entation7*0+)089: test plan designation+ *afe; ffective 0are nviron#ent3.Which of the following is an e-a#ple of a nurses state#ent that reflects using the scientific #ethod in the nursing process?1.“& believe that this client is getting depressed.”2.“The client doesnt look right to #e & think so#ething is wrong.”$.“The clients husband told #e that she is feeling very unco#fortable.”'.“The client reports #ore pain than yesterday and her blood pressure is elevated.”()*+'eporting #ore pain than yesterday and elevated blood pressure reflects using the scientific #ethod in the nursing process. The nurse identified a proble# of pain; hypothesi,ed that it was greater than the day before; and collected data to evaluate its reality. 5elieving the client is depressed or thinking so#ething is wrong reflect intuition. *peaking with the husband reflects infor#ation gathering; which #ay be used in diagnostic reasoning.D&/+(/+21E456+0o#prehensionT4%+)ursing %rocess+ (ssess#ent7*0+)089: test plan designation+ *afe; ffective 0are nviron#entF.The nurse decides to ad#inister tablets of Tylenol instead of the intra#uscular De#erol she has previously been providing her orthopedic client. Which step of the nursing  process does this address?1.(ssess#ent2.)ursing diagnosis$.%lanning'.&#ple#entation()*+' 7osby ite#s and derived ite#s = 2>>; 2>>@ by 7osby; &nc.; an affiliate of lsevier &nc. 1@B$  Test 5ank Taking appropriate action de#onstrates the i#ple#entation step of the nursing process. (ssess#ent involves the gathering of data. When for#ulating a nursing diagnosis; the nurse critically e-a#ines and analy,es the data; and identifies the clients response to a  proble#. The nurse #ay then deter#ine priorities. %lanning involves establishing goals and e-pected outco#es of care.D&/+(/+221456+0o#prehensionT4%+)ursing %rocess+ &#ple#entation7*0+)089: test plan designation+ *afe; ffective 0are nviron#entE.The nurse has a #ultiple client assign#ent on the surgical unit. 4n beginning the shift; the nurse needs to deter#ine which postoperative client should be seen first. 4f the following; the nurse should go to see the client who+1.Aas a docu#ented blood pressure of >C@>2.Was #edicated for back pain 1> #inutes ago $.Aas an order to be out of bed and a#bulated'.euires instructions for wound care before discharge()*+1The nurse prioriti,es actions and deter#ines to see this client first because of a lower thannor#al blood pressure for a postoperative patient. This nurse is using scientifically and  practiceBbased criteria for #aking clinical !udg#ent. This is an e-a#ple of following standards. The nurse uses criteria such as the clinical condition of the client; 7aslows hierarchy of needs; and risks involved in treat#ent delays to deter#ine which clients have the greatest priority for care.&n answers 2 through '; the client is not reported to be having any proble#s and thereforeis not the priority.D&/+0/+221456+(nalysisT4%+)ursing %rocess+ (ssess#ent7*0+)089: test plan designation+ *afe; ffective 0are nviron#entC0oordinationC*etting %riorities.There are a variety of levels of critical thinking. (n e-a#ple of critical thinking at the co#ple- level is+1.Giving #edication at the ti#e ordered2./ollowing a procedure for catheteri,ation stepBbyBstep $.eviewing all clients #edical records thoroughly'.Discussing various alternative pain #anage#ent techniues()*+'Discussing alternative pain #anage#ent techniues is an e-a#ple of critical thinking at the co#ple- level. The nurse analy,es and e-a#ines alternatives #ore independently. Giving #edication at the ti#e ordered is an e-a#ple of the basic level of critical thinking./ollowing a procedure stepBbyBstep is an e-a#ple of the basic level of critical thinking. eviewing the clients #edical records thoroughly is an e-a#ple of gathering data and #ay be used in evaluation of a clients care. 7osby ite#s and derived ite#s = 2>>; 2>>@ by 7osby; &nc.; an affiliate of lsevier &nc. 1@B'

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