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Chapter 1 Final

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  Introduction Today, bridges play a critical role in our transportation system since it rides over urban congestion, waterways, valleys, etc., but are vulnerable to damage because of human actions and natural calamities. So, when catastrophic events transpire, specifically storms and earthquake, these structures must be able to handle the complexities and continually stand to serve its purpose in the transportation system. To avoid disruption, the adequate performance of the bridge should be assessed to guarantee its strength and durability so that necessary repairs or replacement could be done. Based on the generated Bridge Management System output for CY 2015, there are 33 bridges in the Batangas Province Second District. These transportation infrastructures are already aging because some of the bridges were built in the year 1930’s and others are as early as 1900’s. Old bridges do not die or fade away; they deteriorate. Thus, the str  ucture’s ability when it is first erected does not ensure that it will last for all time. Therefore, these structures require inspections and proper maintenance to guarantee the safety of bridge users and for the extension of the bridge service life. In avoidance of bridge failures, the DPWH which is currently responsible for the planning, design, construction and maintenance of infrastructure, especially national highways, has developed programs which can help in the development of the national bridges, these includes the asset preservation program and the network development program.   The asset preservation program includes the routine and major maintenance  and rehabilitation/reconstruction of bridges while the network development program is comprised of the upgrading, replacing and constructing of the new bridges along national roads. In bridge management, conditions of bridges are assessed to the level of good, fair, poor and bad. In general, bridges that fall into the good conditions are those bridges which are free of defects, the fair condition have defects which affect the durability of the bridge. Whereas, the Poor condition are those bridges that may have defects which affect the performance and structural integrity of the structure while the bridges that fall into the bad conditions are considered to have major defects that are beyond repair.   In relation to this, the researchers picked the Lagnas, Hagonoy and Manghinao Bridge under the Palico-Balayan-Batangas Road as the subject of their research. The main objective of the study is to know the present condition and to assess its performance to avoid nuisance in the commuters. Conceptual Framework The researchers will ask the good office of the DPWH for the plans and specifications of the three bridges. Afterward, the researchers will perform bridge inspection in the Hagonoy Bridge, Lagnas Bridge and Manghinao Bridge using the manual that the DPWH will provide. Site surveys and interviews will be conducted to gather further data. Then, the gathered data will be analyzed and be compared to the past data of the DPWH for the researchers to come up with the possible recommendations for improving the performance of the bridges.   Statement of the problem The researchers seek to answer the following questions regarding their study Bridge Condition and Performance Assessment of Lagnas, Hagonoy, and Manghinao Bridge : 1) What is the effect of the following terms in the performance of the bridge? a) Physical Structure b) Traffic and Load Capacity 2) What are the possible reasons for the bridge failure based on its present condition? Existing structure of Hagonoy bridge, Lagnas bridge and Manghinao bridgeTheories of bridge engineering, bridge inspection and structural analysisBridge Inspection, site surveys and gathering relevant dataAnalyzation of dataPlan of Action for the improvement of the bridge performance  3) What are the possible ways of improving the performance of the bridge? Significance of the study The outcome of the study would be beneficial to the different sectors in the following aspects:   To the Department of Public Works and Highway Second District of Batangas province, the gathered data can be used in the future assessments of bridges.   To the community, the gathered data can be used to avoid the possible measures of bridge failures that will result in a major inconvenience in the future.   To the future or professional researchers, the collected data can be an essential basis for further studies.   To the Civil and Sanitary Engineering Department and students of the Batangas State University, the study can be used as a source for future references. Scope and Limitation of the Study The Second District of Batangas Province has 33 bridges and due to the great number of the district’s bridges, the researchers will only cover the selected bridges from the Palico-Balayan-Batangas City Road which includes Hagonoy Bridge, Lagnas Bridge, and Manghinao Bridge. The study involves bridge site investigations and surveys of the structural damages of the bridges. The researchers will perform this assessment through visual
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