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Chapter-1 Wind Energy

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This document gives the current wind energy scenario in India.
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  Chapter-1 WIND ENERGY The earth's surface has both land and water. When the sun comes up, the air over the land heats up quicker than that over water. The heated air is lighter and it rises. The cooler air is denser and it falls and replaced the air over the land. In the night the reverse happens. Air over the water is warmer and rises, and is replaced by cooler air from land. The moving air (wind) has huge amounts of kinetic energy, and this can be transferred into electrical energy using wind turbines. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity. The electricity is sent through transmission and distribution lines to a substation, then on to homes, business and schools. Wind turbines cannot work if there is no wind, or if the wind speed is so high it would damage them. Technology The range of wind speeds that are usable by a particular wind turbine for electricity generation is called productive wind speed. The power available from wind is proportional to cube of the wind's speed. So as the speed of the wind falls, the amount of energy that can be got from it falls very rapidly. On the other hand, as the wind speed rises, so the amount of energy in it rises very rapidly; very high wind speeds can overload a turbine. Productive wind speeds will range between 4 m/sec to 35 m/sec. The minimum prescribed speed for optimal performance of large scale wind farms is about 6 m/s. Wind power potential is mostly assessed assuming 1% of land availability for wind farms required @12 ha/MW in sites having wind power density exceeding 200 W/sq. m. at 50 m hub-height.   The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more above ground, they can take advantage of faster and less turbulent wind. Wind turbines can be used to produce electricity for a single home or  building, or they can be connected to an electricity grid for more widespread electricity distribution. Furthermore projects are going on exploring in Research Design and Development to achieve following goals: Continue cost reduction: improved site assessment, better modelling for aerodynamics, intelligent/recyclable materials, stand-alone and hybrid systems. Increase value and reduce uncertainties: forecasting power performance, improving standards and engineering integrity and storage techniques.  Enable large-scale use: Load flow control and adaptive power quality Minimize environmental impacts: Noise impacts, Flora and Fauna, utilization of land resources and aesthetics integration.The  policy initiatives gave the private sector a good incentive to set up wind projects. The major fiscal incentives provided were:    100% accelerated depreciation on investment on capital equipment in the first year of installation.    Five-year tax exemption on income from sale of power generated by wind energy.    Mandatory purch ase of electricity by the states’ Electricity Boards at specified tariff rates.    Industry status given to SMEs and large-scale producers of wind equipment, enabling them to  benefit from    Tax holidays, relief from customs and excise duty, and liberalised foreign investment norms.    Some states allowed third-party sales of power generation from wind projects.    Banking and wheeling facility. CURRENT INSTALLED CAPACITY IN INDIA Source: C-wet website State Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Tamil Nadu West Bengal Others Total Up to March'2002 93.2 181.4 69.3 2.0 23.2 400.3 16.1 877.0 1.1 3.2 1666.8 2002-03 0.0 6.2 55.6 0.0 0.0 2.0 44.6 133.6 0.0 0.0 242.0 2003-04 6.2 28.9 84.9 0.0 0.0 6.2 117.8 371.2 0.0 0.0 615.2 2004-05 21.8 51.5 201.5 0.0 6.3 48.8 106.3 675.5 0.0 0.0 1111.7 2005-06 0.45 84.60 143.80 0.0 11.40 545.10 73.27 857.55 0.0 0.0 1716.17 2006-07 0.80 283.95 265.95 0.0 16.40 485.30 111.90 577.90 0.0 0.0 1742.05 2007-08 0.0 616.36 190.30 8.50 130.39 268.15 68.95 380.67 0.0 0.0 1663.32 2008-09 0.0 313.6 316.0 16.5 25.1 183.0 199.6 431.1 0.0 0.0 1484.9 2009-10 13.6 197.1 145.4 0.8 16.6 138.9 350.0 602.2 0.0 0.0 1564.6 2010-11 55.4 312.8 254.1 7.4 46.5 239.1 436.7 997.4 0.0 0.0 2349.2 2011-12 54.1 789.9 206.7 0.0 100.5 416.5 545.7 1083.5 0.0 0.0 3196.7 2012-2013 202.10 208.30 201.70 0.0 9.60 288.50 614.00 174.60 0.0 0.0 1698.8 2013-2014 753 3414 2409 55 439 4098 2820 7276 0.0 0.0 21264  Wind Energy Benefits 1. Wind energy is cost competitive with other fuel sources. Power purchase agreements are now being signed in the range of 5 to 6 cents per kilowatt-hour, a  price that is competitive with new gas-fired power plants. Researchers expect continued cost reductions as the technology improves and the market develops. 2. Wind energy creates jobs Wind energy development creates thousands of long-term, high-paying jobs in fields such as wind turbine component manufacturing, construction and installation, maintenance and operations, legal and marketing services, transportation and logistical services, and more. In 2010, the wind sector invested $10 billion in the U.S. economy and employed 75,000 workers. In the same year, 31 manufacturing facilities opened or were announced. According to the American Wind Energy Association, employment in the wind industry’s manufacturing sector has increased from 2,500 jobs in 2004 to 20,000 in 2010, with an estimated additional 14,000 manufacturing jobs planned. 3. Wind energy is an indigenous, home grown energy source that helps to diversify the national energy portfolio. The United States is the world’s largest importer of oil and natural gas.Our reliance on imports threatens our national economic security. Adding wind power to the energy mix diversifies the national energy portfolio and reduces America’s reliance on imported fossil fuels. In addition to  bolstering the security of our national energy supply, wind energy stabilizes the cost of electricity and reduces vulnerability to price spikes and supply disruptions. With the expanded use of electric and  plug-in hybrid vehicles, wind energy can also reduce our dependence on imported transportation fuels. 4. Wind energy can provide income for rural farmers and ranchers, as well as economic benefits to depressed rural areas Wind projects provide revenue to the communities in which they are located via lease payments to landowners, state and tax revenues, and job creation. Even a utility-scale wind turbine has a small footprint, enabling farmers and ranchers who lease their land to developers to continue growing crops and grazing livestock. Achieving 20% wind energy by 2030 would provide significant economic  benefits, including more than $8.8 billion in estimated property taxes and land lease payments  between 2007 and 2030.Rather than paying for energy imported from other states, this money stays in the community. 5. Wind energy is an inexhaustible renewable energy source. Wind energy is plentiful and readily available, and capturing its power does not deplete our natural resources. The Great Plains and offshore areas have tremendous untapped wind energy potential. 6. Wind turbines do not consume water. Most electric power plants require water to operate, and water use in drought-stricken areas like the western United States is a significant issue. Producing electricity from the wind does not require water. Achieving 20% wind energy by 2030 scenario would reduce cumulative water use in the electric sector by 8%, or 4 trillion gallons.  7. Wind energy is clean Electricity generated by wind turbines does not pollute the water we drink or the air we breathe, so wind energy means less smog, less acid rain, and fewer greenhouse gas emissions. A single 1-megawatt wind turbine can displace 1,800 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) in 1 year (equivalent to  planting 1 square mile of forest).Achieving 20% wind energy by 2030 would provide significant environmental benefits, such as avoiding approximately 825 million metric tons of CO2 emissions in the electric sector. Because it is a clean energy source, wind energy reduces health care and environmental costs associated with air pollution. 8. Wind energy systems have low operating costs. Wind energy systems have low operating expenses because they have no fuel cost. When large amounts of wind energy are added to the grid, additional generation may be required to accommodate wind energy’s variability, but the Utility . Limitations   1. Wind machines must be located where strong, dependable winds are available most of the time. 2. Because winds do not blow strongly enough to produce power all the time, energy from wind machines is considered intermittent, that is, it comes and goes. Therefore, electricity from wind machines must have a back-up supply from another source. 3. As wind power is intermittent, utility companies can use it for only part of their total energy needs. 4. Wind towers and turbine blades are subject to damage from high winds and lighting. Rotating parts, which are located high off the ground can be difficult and expensive to repair. 5. Electricity produced by wind power sometimes fluctuates in voltage and power factor, which can cause difficulties in linking its power to a utility system. 6. The noise made by rotating wind machine blades can be annoying to nearby neighbours. Similar exercise without any validation has been carried out for 80 m level with the KAMM generated meso scale map and the results are calculated and given in an attached table. The estimated installable potential at 80 m level is found to be 102788 MW (See the Table.1.). Estimation of installable wind power potential at 80 m level :   States / UTs Estimated potential (MW) @ 50 m ($) @ 80 m (* #$) Andaman & Nicobar 2 365 Andhra Pradesh 5394 14497 Arunachal Pradesh* 201 236 Assam* 53 112 Bihar - 144 Chhattisgarh* 23 314
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