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Chapter 2. Comparison of Cities in the World

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Chapter 2 Comparison of Cities in the World A View of the Data on Urban Form, Urban Transportation, and Energy Consumption The elements of urban form, such as city size and density, and forms of urban
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Chapter 2 Comparison of Cities in the World A View of the Data on Urban Form, Urban Transportation, and Energy Consumption The elements of urban form, such as city size and density, and forms of urban transportation, including vehicle transportation, have a significant impact on energy consumption. This White Paper selected four major cities of the world, ones often compared with each other in discussions about cities; namely, Tokyo, New York, London, and Paris. Data concerning urban form, such as population density and land use, was compared and the situation of urban transportation was also studied. In addition, a comparison study on energy consumption trends was conducted, including an analysis of the business, domestic, and motor vehicle sectors. As can be seen in Chapter 3, New York, London, and Paris are starting to develop various measures to overcome their sustainability crises, and the data shown here will be useful to understand the background of their measures. 1. Potential Crisis for Our Cities 2. Comparison of Cities in the World 3. The Facing Cities Across the World in Coping with the Crisis Fig Outline of Tokyo, New York, London, and Paris 4. The Taken on by Tokyo Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis 23 wards New York New York City Reference Data Tokyo Metropolis 23 wards 8 wards in central Tokyo 4 wards in central Tokyo Area (km 2 ) Population (in 2) 2, ,64, ,134, ,332, ,685 Manhattan Staten Island Brooklyn Bronx Queens (Data) National Census (2) Area (km 2 ) Population (in 2) 122, ,976,457 New York City ,8,278 Manhattan borough ,537,195 London Greater London Inner London Paris (Data) Census (2) Community District Profile, NYC Department of City Planning (2) Ile de France City of Paris Camden Westminster Kensington & Chelsea The City Area (km 2 ) Population (in 21) Greater London 1,596. 7,322,43 Inner London + 6 outer London boroughs 6 inner London boroughs 4 inner London boroughs ,232, ,11, ,454 (Data) Generalised Land Use Database Statistics for England, the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister(OPDM) (21) Greater London Authority s Demography and Statistics (21) Ile de France City of Paris (Data) Regional GIS, IAURIF (1999) Census,INSEE(1999) Area (km 2 ) Population (in 1999) 12, ,952,11 2,125,246 1 Size of Cities and their Density and Land Use First, let us look at the area and population of the four major cities in Figs and As shown in these figures, Tokyo is the largest both in area and population and Paris is the smallest in both these terms. Tokyo is 21 times larger in area and 5.6 times larger in population than Paris. However, the Tokyo shown here represents the entire Tokyo Metropolis, ranging from central Tokyo to Okutama and the island areas. On the other hand, Paris represents only the City of Paris, excluding surrounding towns. The comparisons made here are simply based on the administrative area regardless of differences in urban form. Clearly, it is not really meaningful to make simple comparisons of population density or land use based on different sizes of administrative area. (On the other hand, the area of described in Chapter 3, where its measures are explained, is about 12, km 2 as seen in Fig , and it is 56 times broader than the Tokyo Metropolis.) In this context, as far as the data is available, administrative areas are adjusted so that their sizes are as close as possible to each other for the analysis of urban form, such as the size of cities and their density and land use. (Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) made a comparison study in its Urban White Paper on the Tokyo Metropolis 1991, based on the awareness of this issue. This study also refers to the method used for the Urban White Paper on the Tokyo Metropolis 1991.) Fig shows a comparison of population density, with the total area of the Tokyo 23 wards (621 km 2 ) set as the base. The administrative areas of other cities are adjusted close to this base. The area of New York City is defined to be its entire area, excluding Staten Island (678 km 2 ). The area of Greater London is defined to be that of the 2 boroughs (589 km 2 ), comprising of those in inner London and the 6 outer London boroughs. (Paris is excluded from comparison because the data of the towns surrounding Paris are not available.) In a comparison of the three cities, Tokyo is the highest in population density with 131 people per hectare (1, m 2 ). New York is a little lower with 112, and London is the lowest with 72, which is about 5 to 6 percent of the level of Tokyo and New York. This comparison of population density is based on the data of nighttime population (resident population). In order to study the impact on energy consumption, however, not only the number of people living there but also working there (daytime working population) must be taken into account. The nighttime population and the working population are significantly different from each other not only in Tokyo but also in all other large cities. Fig Comparison of the Area of Each City Fig Comparison of the Population of Each City Tokyo Metropolis: 2,186.9 km 2 Greater London: 1,596. km 2 New York City: km 2 City of Paris: 15.3 km 2 Thousands 14, 12,64 12, 1, 8, 6, 4, 2, Tokyo Metropolis 8,8 7,322 2,125 New York City Greater London City of Paris (Data) Refer to Fig (Data) Refer to Fig Fig Comparison of Nighttime Population Density (Area Corresponding to that of Tokyo 23 Wards) Persons/ha Tokyo 23 wards (Data) Refer to Fig Persons/ha Tokyo 23 wards New York City (excluding Staten Island) Inner London and 6 outer London boroughs Fig Comparison of Daytime Working Population Density (Area Corresponding to that of Tokyo 23 Wards) New York City (excluding Staten Island) 44.4 Inner London and 6 outer London boroughs (Data) Tokyo: Refer to Fig New York: Community District Profile, NYC Department of City Planning (2) 2 CTPP PART 2: Total Workers at Place of Work (Regardless of Residence), NYC Department of City Planning (2) London: Census (21) Generalised Land Use Database Statistics for England, the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (OPDM) (21) Fig Nighttime Population Density and Daytime Working Population Density (Area Corresponding to that of the Central City) Fig shows a comparison of the daytime working population density in the same respective areas of the three cities. There are differences in definition of the daytime working population (New York: workers at place of work; London: workplace population). It is, therefore, meaningless to discuss small differences. However, since it exceeds 1 people per hectare in Tokyo and it is about 5 in New York and London, the population density of Tokyo in this area is about double that of New York or London. As can be seen, in a comparison of the area corresponding to that of the Tokyo 23 wards, Tokyo has the highest and London has the lowest density of both nighttime population and daytime working population. Next, let us narrow the area a little further and make a comparison of these three cities in the area usually called the central city. The central part of New York City is the borough of Manhattan, with an area of 61 km 2. The area almost the same as this in Tokyo is the four wards in central Tokyo, namely, Chiyoda, Chuo, Minato, and Shinjuku (6 km 2 in total). In the case of London, the area is the four inner London boroughs, namely, The City of London, Westminster, Camden, and Kensington & Chelsea (59 km 2 in total). Fig shows both the nighttime population density and the daytime working population density of the area corresponding to that of the central city. First, what characterizes the nighttime population density is the high density of Manhattan. It is 2.6 to 2.7 times that of Tokyo and London, which is quite different from the previous comparison. There is little difference between Tokyo and London. As for the daytime working population, Tokyo is also the highest in this area; however, what is remarkable is rather the low level of London, which is about the half the level of Tokyo and New York. 1. Potential Crisis for Our Cities 2. Comparison of Cities in the World 3. The Facing Cities Across the World in Coping with the Crisis 4. The Taken on by Tokyo Reference Data Persons/ha wards in central Tokyo Manhattan borough 4 inner London boroughs Nighttime population density (persons/ha) Daytime working population density (persons/ha) (Data) Refer to Fig and Fig Fig shows a comparison of the combined population (hereinafter, called simply the total city population ) of the number of residents (nighttime population) and the number of people working there (daytime working population), both of which have an impact on the energy consumption of the city. The bar graph shows the total city population in the area corresponding to that of Tokyo 23 wards. It is about 15 million in Tokyo, about 11 million in New York, and about 7 million in London. The total city population of Tokyo is about 1.4 times that of New York and 2.2 times that of London. It is Tokyo where the population is most integrated as a whole among these cities. The lower part of the bar graph, differentiated by color, is the total city population in the area corresponding to that of the central city. The population is most integrated in the case of New York. The line graph shows the ratio of the total city population in the area corresponding to that of the central city to the total city population in the area corresponding to that of Tokyo 23 wards, representing, so to speak, the concentration rate in the central city. What is characterized here is the high ratio of the population concentrated in Manhattan to that of New York City about onethird is concentrated in Manhattan. In contrast, the concentration rate in central Tokyo is about 2 percent. Another measure of urban form is land use. Fig shows a comparison of land use between the four cities in the area corresponding to that of the central city. (The area of Paris, however, represents the entire City of Paris, and is therefore a little larger than that of the other cities.) Data on land use in each city has been increasingly organized and improved in recent years thanks to the development of mapping information systems and so forth. There are, however, slight differences between cities in the classification of housing areas, roads, open areas, and others, and it is, therefore, impossible to make detailed comparisons using this figure. When we observe the overall tendency of these characteristics, firstly, the high ratio of housing areas in Tokyo is remarkable compared with the other three cities. While the ratio of housing areas is in the 4 percent range in New York, London, and Paris, it is close to 6 percent in Tokyo. In contrast, it is the ratio of open areas (such as parks and water areas) that is remarkably low in Tokyo with only about 4 to 6 percent of that in the other cities. It is 17.8 percent, or less than 2 percent, in Manhattan, which is lower than London and Paris. However, attention needs to be drawn to the fact that the water surface areas of both the Hudson River and the East River, flowing along each side of Manhattan Island, are not included in these calculations. On the other hand, for the area of roads, Tokyo and London have almost the same road ratio. It is considered that Paris has a similar road ratio with the difference in the classification of road area (which includes transportation facilities) taken into account. The road ratio is remarkably high in Manhattan, almost reaching 3 percent. Fig Comparison of Total City Population of Each City Fig Comparison of Land Use 2, 15, 1, 5, Thousands 15, ,228 Tokyo 23 wards ,199 3,627 New York City (excluding Staten Island) 6,845 1, % Inner London and 6 outer London boroughs Total population in the area corresponding to that of the central city (thousands) Total population in the area corresponding to that of the central city/ Total population in the area corresponding to that of Tokyo 23 wards (%) Total population in the area corresponding to that of Tokyo 23 wards (thousands) (Data) Refer to Fig and Fig wards in central Tokyo Manhattan borough 4 inner London boroughs City of Paris % 2% 4% 6% 8% 1% Housing areas Roads/Transportation facilities Others Open areas Roads Transportation facilities * The percentages of individual classifications in each city do not add up to 1%. * Roads/Transportation facilities in Manhattan include water surface areas. * Roads/Transportation facilities in Paris include public facilities. (Data) Tokyo: Land Use of Tokyo, Tokyo Ward Area for 21: Outline of Land Use Survey for Fiscal 21 (21) New York: Community District Profile, NYC Department of City Planning (24) London: Generalised Land Use Database Statistics for England, the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (OPDM) (21) Paris: Commune card 1999 Land Use, IAURIF (1999) 2 Urban Transportation After population density and land use, let us next look at the data on urban transportation. The forms of urban transportation have a great impact on the energy consumption of the city. Among the various urban transportation means, vehicle transportation has the most impact on the environment. First, let us make the comparison of the number of vehicles owned between Tokyo s 23 wards, New York City, and Greater London in Fig The bar graph shows the total number of vehicles owned in each city. London has the largest number with 2.81 million vehicles, followed by Tokyo with 2.5 million. New York has the smallest number with 1.83 million vehicles. The line graph above the bar graph shows the vehicle ownership rate. There is no change in the order in this comparison; that is, London (384 vehicles/ 1, persons), followed by Tokyo (38 vehicles/1, persons), and then New York (228 vehicles/1, persons). The result that New York has the smallest vehicle ownership rate does not seem to match with the image of America, the largest car market. This is due to the peculiarity of the large city. In the entire New York State, the number of vehicles exceeds 1 million, and the vehicle ownership rate reaches 537 vehicles / 1, people, about the double that of New York City. Next, Fig shows a comparison of the annual vehicle traffic volume. It is 32.4 billion vehicle-km in New York and 32.8 billion vehicle-km, about the same, in London. It is 39.2 billion vehicle-km in Tokyo, about 2 percent higher than the others. However, annual vehicle traffic volume is estimated based on the measured data and calculation methods that differ for each city, which makes it difficult to make a precise comparison. It is, therefore, reasonable to assume that, with differences as small as this, the annual vehicle traffic volume is about the same in the three cities. F i g s a n d s h o w t h e m e a n s o f transportation for commuting to and from work and school. The rate of public transportation use, such as train and subway, is the highest in Tokyo at 75 percent. This is substantially higher than that in New York and London at 56 percent and 47 percent, respectively. In contrast, the rate of only personal vehicle use for commuting to and from work or school exceeds 3 percent in New York and London while it is as low as 6 percent in Tokyo. Fig Number of Vehicles Owned and Vehicle Ownership Rate 1, vehicles Vehicles/1, persons 4, , ,5 3 3, 228 2,813 2,55 2,5 25 2, 1, ,5 15 1, Tokyo 23 wards New York City Greater London Number of vehicles owned (1, vehicles) Vehicle ownership rate (Vehicles/1, persons) (Data) Tokyo: Automobile Inspection & Registration Association: Monthly Report of the Number of Vehicles Owned (24) Metropolitan Police Department Traffic Almanac (24) New York: NYS DMV - Statistics - Vehicle Registrations in Force (25) London: Regional Transport Statistics, Department for Transport (24) Fig Comparison of the Vehicle Traffic Volume Million vehicle-km/year 45, 4, 39,152 35, 32,39 32,8 3, 25, 2, 15, 1, 5, Tokyo 23 wards New York City Greater London (Data) Tokyo: Road Traffic Census (1999) New York: REGIONAL EMISSIONS ANALYSIS OF THE DRAFT TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM AND REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION PLAN, New York Metropolitan Transportation Council (22) London: London Travel Report 25, Transport for London (22) Fig Rate of Public Transportation Use for Commuting to and from Work or School % (Data) Tokyo: National Census (2) New York: 2 CTPP PART 2: Total Workers at Place of Work (Regardless of Residence), NYC Department of City Planning (2) London: London Travel Report 25, Transport for London (24) 56 Tokyo 23 wards New York City Greater London Fig Comparison of the Rate of Only Personal Vehicle Use for Commuting to and from Work or School 45 % Tokyo 23 wards New York City Greater London (Data) Refer to Fig Potential Crisis for Our Cities 2. Comparison of Cities in the World 3. The Facing Cities Across the World in Coping with the Crisis 4. The Taken on by Tokyo Reference Data 13 As shown, the rate of public transportation use in the whole city area is substantially lower in New York and London compared with Tokyo; however, in the case of the central city these differences are smaller. Fig shows a comparison of the rate of public transportation use between the 4 wards in central Tokyo, the borough of Manhattan, and central London (the central part of London 27 km 2 in area, including the City of London). Tokyo is still the highest at 84 percent; however, the difference with the other cities is far smaller. In central London 79 percent of people use public transportation, and 73 percent in Manhattan. It is a long-term trend that the rate of public transportation use to enter the center of the city has been high both in New York and London. Figs and show the survey results concerning the transportation means for people entering the Manhattan central business district (south of Central Park with 26 km 2 in area) and for those entering central London, respectively, for the 199s. These surveys are conducted every fall. The rate of using means such as subway and suburban trains has remained consistently high in both cities. Fig Comparison of the Rate of Public Transportation Use for Commuting to and from Work or School (for the central part of cities) % wards in central Tokyo Borough of Manhattan Central London (Data) Refer to Fig Fig Travelers Entering the Hub on a 23 Fall Business Day (Data) NEW YORK METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION COUNCIL: HUB BOUND TRAVEL 23 at a Glance Fig People Entering Central London in the Morning Peak * Includes coach/minibus, taxi, powered two wheeler and cycle. (Data) London Travel Report 25, Transport for London 14 3 Energy Consumption As the last part of the comparison of these cities, data on energy consumption and its characteristics in Tokyo, New York, and London are compared. Due to the limited availability of data, the following respective areas of the three cities are compared. Tokyo: the entire Tokyo Metropolis including 23 wards and the Tama and island areas; New York: the area of New York State; London: the area of Greater London. (Refer to Fig for an outline of each city, including area.) The comparison here is made based on the data released to the public. It is, however, meaningless to discuss small differences because there are differences in the methods of compiling data between the cities. Therefore, a comparison is made here only on the overall trends in energy consumption for each city. First, the total energy consumption of each city is compared based on the data for 23. (Differences such as the weather conditions that year differences from a normal year or the latitude, are not taken into account.) Fig shows a comparison of the total energy consumption of each city and a breakdown by sector. With the total energy consumption of Tokyo as the base, New York consumes 4.1 times that amount of energy, and London.8 times, about the same as Tokyo. Fig shows the energy consumption of each city by type of fuel. Electricity accounts for a third in Tokyo, relatively higher than the other cities. On the
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