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Chapter 2

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   1 Chapter 2- Job Performance Job Performance Definition:   Employees behaviours that contribute either positively or negatively to the accomplishment of organizational goals. -   Understanding one’s own performance is a critical for any employee and for any manager -   Is performance a set of behaviours that a person does (or does not) perform, or is job performance the end result of those behaviours. -   Using results to indicate job performance can create problems   Employees contribute to their organization in ways that go beyond bottom-line results, and so evaluating their performance on the basis of results alone might be inaccurate.   Results are often influenced by factors beyond t  he employee’s control (Product quality, competition, equipment, etc.)   Results don’t tell you how to reverse a “bad year” *** THEREFORE, PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK BASED ON RESULTS DO NOT PROVIDE THE INFORMATION FOR PEOPLE TO IMPROVE THEIR BEHAVIOUR*** What Does It Mean To Be A “Good Performer”?   Relevant job performance behaviours: 1)   Task Performance 2)   Citizenship behaviours 1&2 contributes positively 3)   Counterproductive behaviours 3 contributes negatively 1) Task Performance   Definition : employee behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces   The tasks, duties, responsibilities that are a core part of the job   Set of explicit obligation that an employee must fulfill to receive compensation and continued employment Categorizing task performance -   Routine Task Performance   –  well-known or habitual responses by employees to predictable task demands Ex  : Watching an expressionless flight attendant robotically demonstrate how to insert the seatbelt tongue into the buckle before your flight takes off. -    Adaptive Task Performance   –  thoughtful responses by an employee to unique or unusual task demands (adaptability_   Adaptive behaviours are becoming increasingly important as globalization, technological advances, and knowledge-based work increases the pace of change in the workplace -   Creative Task Performance - ideals or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful   Increase in value of creative performance due to rapid technological change and intense competition that marks today’s business landscape     2 Job Analysis -A process by which an organization determines requirements of specific jobs 3 Steps: 1)   List of all the activities involved in a job is generated (usually from observation, surveys and interviews of employees) 2)   Each activity on the list is rated by “subject matter experts” according to importance and frequency of the activity 3)   Activities that are rated highly in terms of their importance and frequency are retained and used to define task performance National Occupational Classification (NOC) - A national database of occupations in Canada, organizing over 30,000 job titles into 520 occupational group descriptions -   Used when job analysis is unable to identify the set of behaviours needed to define task performance -   Unable to convey the unique way of how activities are enacted 2) Citizenship Behaviours Definition : Voluntary employee behaviours that contribute to organizational goals by improving the context in which work takes place 2 Categories of citizenship behaviours: 1)   Interpersonal citizenship behaviour - Going beyond normal job expectation to assist, support, and develop co-workers and colleagues    Courtesy - keeping co-workers informed    Sportsmanship - maintaining good attitude with co-workers 2)   Organizational Citizenship Behaviour-  Going beyond normal expectations to improve operations of the organization, as well as defending the organization and being loyal to it   Benefit the larger organization by supporting and defending the company    Voice –  speaking up    Civic Virtue   –  participation in company operations at a deeper-than-normal level through voluntary meetings, readings and keeping up with news that affects the company  Boosterism - representing the organization in a positive way when in public 2 Important points about citizenship behaviour -   Relevant in virtually any job, regardless of the nature of its tasks. There are clear benefits of these behaviours in terms of effectiveness of work units and organizations   Research shows higher level of citizenship behaviour promoted higher revenue, better operating efficiency, higher customer satisfaction, higher performance quality -   Employee’s perspective –  tempting to discount the importance of citizenship behaviours   Citizenship behaviour appears to be voluntary and optional, where as tasks duties are not. 3) Counterproductive Behaviour Definition : Employee behaviours that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment Property deviance - behaviours that harm the organization’s assets and possessions   Ex.  Sabotage - purposeful destruction of equipment, organizational processes, or company products   3   Theft Production deviance - Intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output   Ex. Wasting resources –  is the most common form Substance abuse Political Deviance –  behaviours that intentionally disadvantage other individuals   Ex. Gossiping, Incivility- communication that is rue, impolite and discourteous, personal aggression, harassment, abuse 3 points should be noted : 1)   People who engage in one form of counterproductive behaviour also engage in others 2)   Counterproductive behaviour is relevant to any job 3)   Often surprising which employees engage in counterproductive behaviour See Figure 2-2 page 37 Summer: What Does It Mean To Be “Good Performer”?   -   Someone is good at the particular job task that falls within his or her job description -   Also means that the employee engages in citizenship behaviours directed at both co-workers and the larger organization -   Means that he/ she refrains from engaging in the counterproductive behaviours  See Figure 2-3 pg.40  Application: Performance Management 1) Management by Objective (MBO)-  management philosophy that bases employee evaluations on whether specific performance goals have been met   Typically employee meets with his or her manager to develop a set of mutually-agreed upon objectives and the methods used to do so   Best suited for managing the performance of employees who work in contents in which objective measures of performance can be quantified 2) Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) - Use of examples of critical incidents to evaluate an employee’s job performance behaviours directly      Approach uses “ critical incidents” – short descriptions of effective and ineffective behaviours to create a measurement instrument that manager can use to evaluate employee performance ã 5 = Open -minded; learns new methods easily   ã 4 = willing to make changes without much need for persuasion or supervision ã 3 = Able to make changes with average amount of instruction   ã 2 = requires persuasion and supervision to make changes   ã 1 = Unwilling to accept changes; does not adjust readily     Typically, supervisors rate several performance dimensions using BARS and score an employee’s overall job performance by taking the average value across all the dimensions   3)   360 Degree Feedback-  A performance evaluation system that uses ratings, provided by supervisors, co-workers, subordinates, customers, and the employees themselves   4 Also ask the employee to provide rating of his or her own performance Goal: to provide a more balance and comprehensive examination of performance 4)   Forced Ranking   – A Performance management system which managers rank subordinates relative to one another   Some believe the system is inherently unfair, because it forces managers to give bad evaluations to employees who may be good performers,   Employees may be hypercompetitive with one another to avoid finding themselves in a lower category. 5)   Social Networking Systems   Facebook and Twitter   Facebook- styled program called “Performance Multiplier” which requires that employees post and update weekly and quarterly goals. Managers then monitor the information and provide feedback

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