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Chapter 24 Scallops fisheries and aquaculture of Northwestern Pacific, Russian Federation

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Chapter 24 Scallops fisheries and aquaculture of Northwestern Pacific, Russian Federation
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  Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture S.E. Shumway and G.J. Parsons (Editors) 1163 © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Chapter 24 Scallops Fisheries and Aquaculture of Northwestern Pacific, Russian Federation Victor  V.  Ivin, Vasily  Z.  Kalashnikov, Sergey I. Maslennikov and Vitaly G. Tarasov 24.1 INTRODUCTION Scallops are the most intensively consumed and fished bivalve molluscs in Russia. There are more than ten scallop species found within the seas of  the  Russian Federation. The best known is the Yesso scallop,  Mizuhopecten yessoensis,  also referred to as the Ezo scallop, giant scallop, Japanese scallop, Russian scallop, Primorsky scallop and common scallop. For a long time these molluscs have been the focus of traditional fishing in the coastal waters of the Sea of Japan, Southern Sakhalin, and the Southern Kurile shoal. Commercial scallop beds, averaging 4,000 tons per year, can be found in the Barents Sea Chlamys  islandica),  the Bering Sea (C  behringiana\  the Kurile Islands and northern Primorye (C  albida  and C.  chosenica),  and in Peter the Great and Posjet Bays of  the  Sea of Japan (C  farreri).  This chapter reviews the biology and ecology of eight scallop species  from  he Russian part of the northern Pacific Ocean. Fishery statistics and typical technologies used at these commercial aquaculture farms are also presented. 24.2 TAXONOMIC STATUS According to (Kafanov  1991;  Kafanov and Lutaenko 1998) there are eight species of Pectinidae in the Russian part of northern Pacific Ocean. Their taxonomic status follows: Class Bivalvia Linne, 1758 Order Pectinida H. Adams et A. Adams, 1857 Family Pectinidae Rafinesque, 1815 Genus  Chlamys  R5ding, 1798 Chlamys {Chlamys) albida  Arnold, 1906 (ex Dall, MS) Until recently, this species was confused with C  islandica (Muller, 1776) C (C)  asiatica  Scarlato, 1981 C (C)  behringiana  Middendorff,  1849) C (C)  chosenica  Kuroda, 1932 Until recently, this species was confused with C  rosealba Scarlato, 1981 C.  {Azumapecteri)farreri  (Jones et Preston, 1904)  1164 Until recently, this species was confused with C  farreri nipponensis  Kuroda, 1932 or C  nipponensis  Kuroda, 1932 C.  Swiftopecten) swifti  (Bemardi, 1858) Genus Delectopecten  StQv^art 1930 Delectopecten randolphi  (Dall, 1897) Genus A//zwAop^c/eA7 Masuda, 1963 Mizuhopectenyessoensis Jay,  1857) 24.3 BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY 24.3.1  Chlamys albida  (Common names: white scallop and commercial scallop) Chlamys albida  is a widespread, high-boreal, Pacific species (Fig. 24.1). It occurs from Middle Primorye (Lutaenko 1999) up to the northern part of  the  Sea of Japan (Tatar Strait),  along the northern coastline of the Sea of Okhotsk, and near the Kurile (Paramushir and Iturup), Commodore and Aleut Islands. It lives in muddy-sands with pebbles at depths between 36-398 m (Scarlato 1981). Environmental ranges are typical for near-bottom waters: temperature -0.79 to 4.79°C, salinity 33.05-33.43%o and oxygen concentrations from 5.67 to 6.40 mg L ^ (Myasnikov 1985). At Kurile, white scallops were more frequently fouled by sponges  Mycale adhaerens  and  Myxilla parasitica  and rarely inhabited by various hydrozoa, barnacles, bryozoa, algae, polychaetes, actinias and juveniles of bivalve molluscs (Myasnikov 1986). The growth rates of scallops from different regions of  the  Kurile Ridge differ greatly from each other (Silina and Pozdnyakova 1986) but approximately equal and high rates of linear growth (up to 13.5 mm yr ^) are observed in all regions during the first three years (Fig. 24.2; Table 24.1). After this age, the most intensive growth is observed in scallops living along the Sea of Okhotsk side of Onekotan Island, where shell growth is up to 18 mm•yr•^ Minimum shell growth was observed at Simushir Island (middle Kuriles) where the annual rates did not exceed 13 mm yr'* and in Pacific Ocean waters of Onekotan Island. According to Zolotarev (1979) these molluscs have three strongly pronounced stages of linear growth: juvenile, mature and senile. For C  albida,  juvenile or fast growth stage finishes when the age of puberty is reached. The next stage (mature) is limited to 10 years.  Senile stage starts at 10 years when annual shell growth does not exceed 0.5-1.5 mm. Scallops reach marketable size (60 mm) at about 5 years (Table 24.1). Scallop weights also change irregularly with age. In scallops up to 50-60 mm, weight increases by equal rates. After this size, the rate of weight increase in scallops inhabiting the Sea of Okhotsk side of Onekotan Island differs from that of scallops from Pacific Ocean waters. Maximum weight increases (up to 23 g yr'^) are observed at the age of  5  years.  1165 50H hso Figure 24.1. Natural habitat of the White scallop  Chlamys albida  Arnold, 1906 (ex Dall, MS) (by Scarlato 1981). A - map showing known commercial assemblages. Table 24.1 Shell height (mm) and ages of commercial  Chlamys  scallops in the northwest Pacific, mm ± s.d. Age (years) 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 C  albida C. (Silina and Pozdnyakova 1991) 7.5 ±0.6 19.7 ±1.0 31.6±1.4 43.5 ±1.5 54.9 ±1.5 64.5 ±1.5 71.4±1.5 77.0 ±1.8 behringiana 8.6 ±0.9 19.0 ±1.9 31.3 ±1.9 44.0 ± 2.0 55.9 ±2.0 65.4 ±2.2 72.5 ±2.4 76.9 ± 2.4 C.  chosenica (Silina and Pozdnyakova 1990) 9.6 ±0.5 23.5 ±0.5 35.1 ±0.6 45.0 ± 0.6 53.2 ±0.6 59.2 ± 0.6 63.5 ±0.6 66.7 ± 0.6 69.6 ± 0.6 72.0 ± 0.6 74.4 ± 0.7 76.2 ±0.8 77.4 ±1.2  1166 140 n 120 100 ^ 80 I -a 60 a 140 o H 20 I 10 15 Age, years 20 25 14 12 10  I 8 »Q 6 ^ e + 4 2 0 30 Figure 24.2. Growth rates of  the  White scallop  Chlamys albida  at  Oichotsk Sea  and  Pacific sides of Onekotan Island, Kurile Islands (by data of Myasnikov, Kochnev 1988). A - Total shell height, mm.  B - Annual shell growth, mm. According to Myasnikov (1988), the size range in the population of C  albida  from the northern part of the Sea of Okhotsk includes scallops with shell heights between 18-93 mm (average of 68 mm) but individuals within the size of 70-80 mm (about 40%) were most common. The average shell height correlates with depth. As depth increases from 50 to 125 meters the average shell height increases from 41 to 73 mm. At depths of over 125 m, average shell heights decreased to 62 mm. The maximum age of these scallops does not exceed 28-30 yr. The age of sexual maturity is 3 to 5 years with shell heights between 40-70 mm. The sex ratio (male to female) changes from 0.6:1.0 to 2.0:1.0. At North Kuriles, mass spawning in population starts in June (Myasnikov and Kochnev 1988). There are four commercial concentrations of C.  albida  along the southern and northern coastlines of Northern Kurile Islands (Sea of Okhotsk side and Pacific Ocean side),  at Simushir Island and in the Northern part of  the  Sea of Okhotsk (Myasnikov and Hen 1990; Myasnikov et al. 1992). 24.3.2  Chlamys asiatica  (Common name: Asiatic scallop) Chlamys asiatica  is a high-boreal, Asian-Pacific species (Fig. 24.3). The Asiatic scallop occurs on Kurile Island, on the eastern coast of Kamchatka Peninsula and in the  1167 Bering Sea (Anadyr Bay). It lives in sandy substrates mixed with shingle and muddy sands at depths between 80-120 m (Scarlato 1981). It was rarely found in its natural habitat. 24.3.3  Chlamys behrmgiana  (Common name: Bering Sea's scallop) Chlamys behrmgiana  is a widespread, high-boreal, Pacific species (Fig. 24.4). It occurs within the Sea of Okhotsk at Sakhalin and Aniva Bays, the Strait of Laperuz, the southern and eastern waters of Kamchatka Peninsula, and the Kurile Islands (Paramushir and Shikotan). It is also found in the Bering Sea and in the Arctic Ocean at the southern part of  the  Chuckchee Sea and Sea of Beaufort. It is found at depths between 24-200 m in muddy sands mixed with shingle and gravel and in gravel with pebbled substrates (Scarlato 1981). Environmental ranges have been reported by Myasnikov (1985) for temperature (0.79 to 4.79°C), salinity (33.05-33.43%o) and oxygen concentrations (5.67 to 6.40 mg L"^). Bering Sea's scallops are often inhabited by hydroids,  Eunephtya  sp., and ascidians,  Pyaridae  sp. (Myasnikov 1986). According to Buyanovsky (1999), larger scallops are observed at Karaginsky Island (size: 72.7 mm, age: 10-15 yr) and at Olyutorsky Bay (size: 83.3 mm, age: 20-25 yr). After these ages, shell height does not change. Higher growth rates in scallops fi-om Olyutorsky Bay are probably linked to the more intensive water exchange via the main branch of Kamchatka Current. 50 H h50 Figure 24.3. Natural habitat of the Asiatic scallop,  Chlamys  asiatica  Scarlato, 1981 (Scarlato 1981).
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