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Chapter 5 Sections 3 and 4 Vocabulary

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Vocab from Chapter 5 Sections 3 and 4. It includes an extensive list using a b format. This covers the American Revolution. BOOK: The American Journey: Early Years
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  Chapter 5 Sections 3 and 4 Vocabulary First Continental Congress- A.   A political body that represented the colonies. B.   55 delegates from all the colonies except Georgia. Met in Philadelphia. They had come to establish a political body to represent America interests and challenge British control. Agreed to boycott all English goods and to begin training local militias. Delegates- A.   Political leaders from across the colonies. B.   Eventually, they will vote for independence and to vote on issues concerning British colonial products. 13 Acts of Parliament- A.   Laws passed by the British Parliament. B.   The delegates believed these laws violated the “laws of nature, the principles of the English constitution and several Charters to arm themselves. They drafted a statement of grievances. Suffolk Resolves (resolutions)- A.   These resolutions called on the people of the country to arm themselves against the British. B.   The people responded by forming militias or groups of citizen soldiers. Minutemen- A.   Companies of civilian soldiers w ho boasted they were ready in a minute’s notice.  B.   Defended their homes and local community and used their own muskets and ammunition. Battles of Lexington and Concord- A.   The opening shots of the war for independence. At Lexington, 70 minutemen stood ready for battle with British troops. At Concord, minutemen forced the British to retreat at North Bridge. B.   At Lexington, when a shot was fired, both sides let loose an exchange of bullets. When the fighting ended, eight minutemen lay dead. The British also have arrest warrants for John Hancock and Sam Adams. At Concord, messengers on horseback spread word of British movements. From Concord to Boston, the militia fired from the trees. When they reached Boston, 174 were wounded and 73 were dead. “The shot heard round the world” - A.   This was the point where the battle for independence had begun. B.   The impact will be on the world is that the United States will be the first of many democratic revolutions. West Point (traitor)- A.   An important fort in New York that Benedict Arnold will almost turn over to the British.  B.   Benedict Arnold sold military information to the British later during the war. When he conspired to surrender West Point to the British, his treason was discovered. Because Washington was coming to visit. Fort Ticonderoga- A.   A fort of the British that was strategically located on Lake Champlain and rich in military supplies B.   Early in the war, Benedict Arnold was referred to as a hero. He was authorized to raise a force of 400 men to seize Fort Ticonderoga. With Ethan Allen, this fort surrendered on May 10, 1775. Loyalists (Tories)- A.   Those who chose to stay with Britain or remained loyal to Britain. B.   They did not consider unfair taxes and regulations good reasons for rebellion. Others lived in relative isolation and others expected Britain to win the war and wanted to gain favor with the British. Patriots- A.   Colonists who supported the war and wanted independence. B.   They believed that British rule had become unbearable. They were determined to fight the British until American independence was won. Battle of Bunker Hill- A.   A battle fought (actually fought on Breed’s Hill) because the British decided to drive the Americans from Bunker and Breed’s Hill. They were both overlooking Boston. This  battle was the first major battle (full scale). B.   On June 16, 1775, the British won the battle, but suffered greatly. They charged up to fight the Patriots 2 different times. The third time the British charged they gained the upper hand. More than 1,000 dead and wounded, the British learned that defeating the Americans would not be quick or easy. The Americans only lost because they ran out of gunpowder plus ammunition. Psychological win for Americans. “Don’t fire until you see the whites for their eyes” - A.   Colonel William Prescott shouted this order. B.   He said this because they were low on ammunition. Usually, the closer your target is, the more chance you have of hitting him. John Adams- A.   A Massachusetts colonist and member of the 2 nd  Continental Congress. B.   He was on a committee to write Declaration of Independence and he signed it too. Patrick Henry-  A.   He was one of the first members of the Virginia House of Burgesses to argue for independence. B.   Vowed, “Give me liberty or give me death.” He was also the first to call the colonists Americans. And was selected to be in the Continental Congress. Thomas Gage-    A.   A British general in Boston. B.   He commanded British troops under military rule in Boston. Had instructions to take away the weapons of the Massachusetts militia and arrest their leaders. Also, he had orders to order troops to Concord. Paul Revere (Dr. Joseph Warren, William Dawes)-  A.   A Silversmith who became a member of the Sons of Liberty. B.   Dr. Joseph Warren alerted Paul Revere that the British began marching out of Boston. Paul Revere and William Dawes rode out to Lexington to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock that the British were coming, warning people along their ride. Captain John Parker-  A.   Captain who led about 70 minute men at Lexington to defend themselves against the British, protect the ones they loved, or to protect their homes and property. B.   The minutemen were forced to retreat at Lexington because the British proved too strong. They were also under orders to avoid bloodshed. Benedict Arnold-  A.   A traitor captain in the Connecticut militia. He was also an early Connecticut hero. B.   He attacked the British and caught them by surprise with Ethan Allen. Fort Ticonderoga surrendered on May 10, 1775. Arnold tries to unsuccessfully take Quebec. Later, he switched sides and joined the British. He sold information from the Americans to the British. He also lead British troops in battle at Virginia and Connecticut. Ethan Allen and Green Mountain Boys-  A.   A Patriot captain B.   Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys mounted an expedition in Vermont to attack Ticonderoga, with Captain Benedict Arnold. Ethan Allen was also successful in  protecting New England. 2 nd  Continental Congress-  A.   A government body that represented (or governed) the U.S. during the Revolutionary War. Assembled on May 10, 1775 for the first time. B.   They met in Philadelphia, acted as the capital. The delegates included some of the greatest political leaders in America. Many of them were not yet prepared to break away from Great Britain. Continental Army-  A.   Official army of the U.S. during the revolution. This army was created by delegates at the 2 nd  Continental Congress. B.   Was created to fight against Britain in a more organized way than colonial militias could. Was lead by George Washington. Petition-  A.   A formal request B.   Congress sent a request, made by government officials, to King George. Olive Branch Petition-    A.   A formal request sent by Congress. It assured the King of the colonies’ desire for  peace and asked him to protect those rights. B.   King George III saw it in the wrong way and hired more than 30,000 German troops, Hessians, to fight along with more British soldiers. Common Sense  / Thomas Paine- A.   A recent immigrant from England. Thomas Paine also wrote Common Sense  in early 1776. B.   In Common Sense , a pamphlet, Thomas Paine called for complete independence. This  book greatly influenced opinion throughout the colonies. It also explains why we did not heed British rule. Declaration of Independence-      This is a document that announces the colonist’s independence.  1.   Preamble- the introduction, states that people who wish to form a new country should explain their reasons for doing so. 2.   Lists the rights the colonists believed they should have and their complaints against Britain. It also lists the wrongs committed by the British government. 3.   Proclaims the existence of the new nation. July 2, 1776- When the 2 nd  Continental Congress voted for independence. July 4, 1776-  The day the Declaration of Independence was approved on and officially the day we celebrate for independence. John Hancock-  A.   A wealthy Boston merchant B.   Funded many Patriot groups. The delegates chose him as president of the 2 nd  Continental Congress. He signed the Declaration of Independence and was the one who signed the largest. Ben Franklin-  A.   Is the most respected man in the colonies. B.   Had been an influential member of the Pennsylvania legislature. He will also go to Paris and get the French to help the U.S. Thomas Jefferson-  A.   He was only 32 and had already earned a reputation as a brilliant thinker and writer. Thomas Jefferson was srcinally from Virginia. B.   He served in the Virginia legislature and chosen to write the Declaration of Independence. George Washington- A.   A delegate from Virginia, chosen by the 2 nd  Continental Congress to lead the Continental Army.
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