Chapter01 Introduction and Basic Concepts

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Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
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1 Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Concepts   Study Guide in PowerPoint to accompany Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 6th edition by Yunus A. Çengel and Michael A. Boles    2 Nomenclature ã  A  area (m 2 )   ã C  P   specific heat at constant pressure (kJ/(kg  K))   ã C  V   specific heat at constant volume (kJ/(kg  K)) ã COP coefficient of performance   ã d   exact differential   ã E   stored energy (kJ)   ã e  stored energy per unit mass (kJ/kg)   ã F   force (N)   ã g   acceleration of gravity ( 9.807 m/s 2 )   ã H   enthalpy (H= U + PV) (kJ)   ã h  specific enthalpy (h= u + Pv) (kJ/kg)   ã h  convective heat transfer coefficient (W/(m 2  K) ã K Kelvin degrees   ã k   specific heat ratio, C P  /C V ã k 10 3 ã k  t   thermal conductivity (W/(m-  C))   ã M   molecular weight or molar mass (kg/kmol) ã M 10 6 ã m  mass (kg) ã N   moles (kmol)   ã n  polytropic exponent (isentropic process, ideal gas n = k) ã    isentropic efficiency for turbines, compressors, nozzles ã   th  thermal efficiency (net work done/heat added)   ã P   pressure (kPa, MPa, psia, psig) ã Pa Pascal (N/m 2 )    3 ã  X   distance (m)   ã  X   exergy (kJ)   ã  x   quality   ã Z   elevation (m)   ã W  net  net work done [(  W  out  -  W  in ) other   + W  b ] (kJ) where W  b  = for closed systems and 0 for control volumes   ã w  net   W  net  / m , net work done per unit mass (kJ/kg)   ã W  t weight (N) ã δ   inexact differential ã    regenerator effectiveness ã ϕ   relative humidity ã    density (kg/m 3 ) ã    humidity ratio ã Q net  net heat transfer (  Q in  -  Q out ) (kJ)   ã q net  Q net  /m, net heat transfer per unit mass (kJ/kg)   ã R   particular gas constant (kJ/(kg  K))   ã R  u  universal gas constant (= 8.314 kJ/(kmol  K) )   ã S  entropy (kJ/K)   ã s  specific entropy (kJ/(kg  K))   ã T   temperature (  C, K,  F, R)   ã U   internal energy (kJ)   ã u  specific internal energy (kJ/(kg  K))   ã V   volume (m 3  ) ã  volume flow rate (m 3 /s) ã  velocity (m/s)   ã v   specific volume (m 3 /kg) ã  molar specific volume (m 3 /kmol) Nomenclature con’t    V     V  v  4 Subscripts, superscripts ã  A actual   ã B boundary   ã F saturated liquid state   ã G saturated vapor state   ã fg saturated vapor value minus saturated liquid value ã gen generation   ã H high temperature ã HP heat pump   ã L  low temperature ã net net heat added to system or net work done by system ã other work done by shaft and electrical means   ã P constant pressure ã REF refrigerator ã rev reversible   ã s  isentropic or constant entropy or reversible, adiabatic ã sat saturation value ã v constant volume ã 1 initial state ã 2 finial state   ã i   inlet state   ã e  exit state ã    per unit time

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