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Chemistry Stoichiometry Glossary

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    © The School For Excellence 2008 TSFX Online Resources. Get the Edge at www.tsfx.com.au Page 1   STOICHIOMETRY GLOSSARY  Acid  According to the Lowry-Bronsted theory of acids and bases, an acid is a proton donor.  Aliquot The volume of the sample, as measured by a pipette, prior to a titration.  Amphiprotic Can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the situation.  Amphoteric Can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the situation.  Anhydrous Without water. The molecule has no associated water molecules.  Anion Negative ion, formed when a neutral atom has gained electrons.  Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of the atom.  Avogadro’s Constant 6.023 x 10 23  particles (atoms, ions or molecules), or 1 mole of substance. Base  According to the Lowry-Bronsted theory of acids and bases, a base is a proton acceptor. That is, a species that will accept an extra H + . Cation Positive ion, formed when a neutral atom has lost electrons. Chemical Equation Shows the relative amounts, in mole, of reactants and products. Chemical Formula Chemical symbol that represent elements, ions and compounds. Combustion Reaction  A reaction with oxygen. The reaction will be strongly exothermic.    © The School For Excellence 2008 TSFX Online Resources. Get the Edge at www.tsfx.com.au Page 2   Compound  A substance that consists of one or more elements that are chemically bonded together. Conjugate Acid-Base Pair Chemical species that differ by exactly one proton, H + . Conjugate Redox Pair Consists of a reactant and a product. The chemical formulae will be based on the same element, but have different charges and may differ in the number of hydrogen and/or oxygen atoms. Diprotic Acid  An acid that can donate two hydrogen ions per molecule of acid. Dissociation Splitting up into its ions when in an aqueous solution. Empirical Formula The smallest ratio of elements in the compound, given as whole numbers. End Point The point of a titration that occurs when a permanent colour change is first observed, and the titration is stopped. Equivalence Point The point of a titration where chemically equivalent amounts of the two solutions, according to the mole ratios shown by the equation, are present. Excess Reactant The reactant that has some leftover after a chemical reaction is complete. Formula Mass The sum of the relative atomic masses of each atom in the ionic formula. Hydrated - With water The molecular formula is a complex that includes associated water molecules. Ion  An atom that has gained or lost electrons and carries an electrical charge. Ionic equation  A balanced chemical equation that has all spectator ions omitted. Isotopes  Atoms with the same atomic number and the same mass number.    © The School For Excellence 2008 TSFX Online Resources. Get the Edge at www.tsfx.com.au Page 3   Limiting Reactant The reactant that is completely consumed during a chemical reaction. Mass Number The number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. Molar Mass The mass of one mole of a substance, equal to the relative mass expressed in grams. Molar Volume (V m ) The volume that one mole of a gas occupies. Mole 6.023 x 10 23  particles (atoms, ions or molecules). Molecular Formula The number of atoms of each element that are in a molecule. Monoprotic Acid  An acid that can donate one hydrogen ion per molecule of acid. Oxidant  Allows the oxidation of another species, by itself undergoing reduction. Oxidation Numbers Indicate the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were broken and the more electronegative element kept all of the electrons in the bond. They are used to identify oxidation and reduction reactions. Oxidation Reaction Involves the loss of electrons, and the oxidation number goes up. pH  A measure of the concentration of H +  (aq), or H 3 O +  (aq), in the solution. Polyprotic Acid  An acid with more than one proton. Precipitate The solid that forms when two solutions are mixed. Precipitation Reaction  A reaction between two solutions that results in the formation of a solid, which is called a precipitate.    © The School For Excellence 2008 TSFX Online Resources. Get the Edge at www.tsfx.com.au Page 4   Primary Standard  A standard solution that is prepared by dissolving a known mass in a known volume of water. Redox Reaction Involves the transfer of electrons. Reductant  Allows the reduction of another species, by itself undergoing oxidation. Reduction Reaction Involves the gaining of electrons, and the oxidation number goes down. Relative Atomic Mass (RAM or A R ) The weighted average of all relative isotopic masses as they occur in a natural sample of the element. Relative Isotopic Mass (RIM) The mass of an isotope, relative to Carbon-12. Relative Molecular Mass (RMM or M R ) The sum of the relative atomic masses of each atom that is present in a single molecule. Salt One of the products of an acid-base reaction. It is the substance formed when the anion from the acid joins with the cation from the base. Secondary Standard  A standard solution where the concentration is determined by titrating it against a primary standard. Solute  A substance that is dissolved in a solvent. Solution  A solute dissolved in a solvent. Solvent  A liquid in which a solute is dissolved. Spectator Ions Ions that are present but do not take part in a chemical reaction. Standard Laboratory Conditions (SLC) Temperature is 25 ° C and pressure is 1 atm. The molar volume 24.5 L
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