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CHP 1 - ANSWERS (1) (1)

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  CHAPTER 1 ANSWERS NOTE: ALL WRITING IN RED ARE THE ANSWERS AND ARE RELEVANT ALL WRITING IN BLACK IS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR YOUR KNOWLEDGE 1.1   What is the major difference between advertising and promotion? Advertising goes way beyond the public announcement of products. It is about inclining the client towards an offering by making information available of the product that leads a customer to develop a positive sentiment towards the brand. It develops a n “emotional authenticity” that leads the consumer to build a positive attitude towards the brand. The consumer then looks for the offering being advertised in the marketplace. Advertising generates long lasting brand image that enhances consumers’ loyalty towards the brand. It aids in selling the offering even before the salesmen try to sell the offering. Marketers benefit long term by successfully creating a well-known brand equity that significantly will boost sales in the long term. Promotion aims at grasping the market share. The main message is not brand oriented but to accelerate brand sales immediately. It is unemotional in nature and persuades consumers to act immediately to buy the product. Marketers at times provide incentives such buy 2 for price of 1, distribute free samples, etc. The main objective of promotion is brand purchase intention that causes the target market to immediately try out the offering or purchase the offering immediately. Moreover, Prentice claimed that promotion is a “consumer franchise building” that creates brand awareness, builds favorable brand attitude and augments sales immediately. EXTRA: promotion, an element of the marketing mix which consists of public relations and personal selling. Public relation is unpaid promotion. Personal selling makes use of brochures, catalogs, presentations by the salesmen. With all types of marketing communication, the selling message must be consistent. 3 types of promotion  –  a)   trade promotion  –  discounts or incentive to help move more product b)   retail promotion  –  promotions offered by the retailer or srcinated with the brand. c)   Consumer promotion  –  offered B2B customers or consumers to accelerate or reinforce the decision process.  1.2   What is necessary for persuasive communication to work? For persuasive communication to work, a consumer must notice or hear the message, must pay attention to it, must comprehend the meaning of the message, and must accordingly provide a response to the message. This sequence is known as consumer response sequence necessary for persuasive communication to work. For example, Kinder Bueno advert shows a women relaxing and claims “ A little bit of what you fancy.” This shows that Kinder Bueno will be more satisfying and enjoyable than any other chocolate. It will provide a sensual experience. The advert aims at creating a positive emotional authenticity among the woman towards the brand. Marketers should place the advert in a magazine that their target market, women browse through. As the women browse through the magazine, they would notice the advert, comprehend the meaning behind the advert. The favorable brand attitude will encourage the consumer to look out for the product and try out the product. EXTRA: Furthermore, at times we may an advertisement many times without paying much attention to it. The visual images from the advertisement will get registered in our mind. We will be able to associate the visual images of the product with the brand and this may influence us to purchase the product one day. The consumer response sequence takes time and does not occur instantaneously. 1.3   Why are brand awareness and brand attitude always communication objectives? All advertisements must arouse four communication forces in the consumers’ minds. These forces comprise of category need, brand awareness, brand attitude, and brand purchase intention. A)   Category need is when a consumer purchases a product because he is interested in purchasing that product category. B)   Brand awareness: The consumer must be able to identify the brand through recognition or recall. Recognition aids in identifying the product on the shelf at the point of purchase. While recall lets the consumer think of the brand own their own before purchasing it. C)   Brand Attitude: Along with brand awareness, a consumer must form a favorable attitude towards the brand by forming an emotional bond with the brand. The attitude includes the gained knowledge about the brand and the feelings linked to the brand. D)   Brand purchase intention: The brand purchase intention is when a consumer tries or purchases the product. Purchase intention is a primary objective of promotion. For instance, the Kinder Bueno advertisement shows a clear image of the packaged product and specifies the brand name clearly which encourages brand awareness among consumers through recognition. As discussed the advertisement creates favorable brand attitude and could lead to positive brand purchase intention too. The most essential communication forces of the advertisements were to create brand awareness and favorable brand attitude. It was not trying to create a category need as its target market already consumes chocolate bars. The advertisement is not trying to encourage people to consume chocolates or persuade them to purchase it.  With all types of marketing communication, the selling message must be consistent. One of the forms of marketing communication is advertising which is about inclining the client towards an offering by making information available of the product that leads a customer to develop a positive sentiment towards the brand 1.4   What is basic difference between informational & transformational brand attitude strategies? Consumers must have enough knowledge of the brand and have a positive feeling towards the product being advertised. The favorable brand attitude will encourage the consumer to look out for the product and try out the product. Type of purchase decision: When a consumer wants to purchase a product of low involvement, monetary risk and psychological risks involved are quite low and not much time is invested for research of information. For example, the decision to purchase a chocolate bar is low involvement. On the other hand, a high involvement product such as a car requires to go through a lot of information and large monetary risks are associated to such a product. Types of motivations: We engage in a purchase decision due to negative or positive motivations. Negative motivation leads us to purchase products that removes or avoids a problem. Positive motivations lead us to purchase products that make us feel good. Our purchase decisions depend on whether we are looking for high or low involvement product and whether the motivations are negative or positive. In advertisements, brand attitude strategy comprises of: a)   Low involvement driven by negative motivations b)   Low involvement driven by positive motivations c)   High involvement driven by negative motivations d)   High involvement driven by positive motivations Kinder Bueno chocolate bar is aiming at providing consumers a more statisfying and enjoyable chocolate that any other chocolate could provide. The chocolate is trying to offer sensory gratification to consumers and hence it aims to create positive feels among consumers and the brand. Hence, the advertisement is driven by Low involvement driven by positive motivations. If a wrong brand strategy is used, the target audience will not notice the advertisement much or understand the meaning behind the advertisement. Summary: advertising stimulates communication forces in the minds of the consumers. Brand awareness and brand attitude are always essential communication objectives of an advertisement. The brand attitude strategy should effectively incorporate the type of involvement and type of motivation that would lead consumers to purchase the product.  The message appeals usually consists of logos, pathos and ethos. Logos appeal encourage viewers of the advertisement to draw out conclusions against the arguments provided in the message. This usually occurs when the product is of low involvement and the consumer is negatively motivated to find a solution to remove or avoid the problem. In contrast, when the purchase decision is of high involvement and the consumer is negatively motivated, then the arguments provided in the advertisement are accepted as true. Brand attitude strategies that consist of negative motivations are known as informational as they provide a solution to avoid or solve the problem. Advertisements use pathos appeal in their message to build a feeling and a favorable attitude towards the brand. Brand attitude strategies that consist of positive motivations are known as transformational as the marketers aim to create emotional authenticity between the consumers and the product. EXTRA: Message appeals also consist of ethos that consist of a famous spokesperson to endorse the brand to encourage the target market to use the brand in order to be associated with them. Ethos appeals persuade the consumers to pay more attention on the source while the logos and pathos appeal motivate consumers to pay attention to the content of the message. The logos appeal requires a credible source or an expert to deliver the message while the pathos appeal attractiveness is needed. 1.5   What problems if any do social media pose for advertising? The brand message must be consistent throughout all marketing communications. The message presented in social media must follow the same regulations as the message presented in traditional media. In conventional media, the message is framed by the advertiser while in social media, the consumers are also allowed to frame the message. Social media encourages user generated content where consumers can voice out their reviews to companies, organizations,etc. It encourages culture of participation and comprises of consumerspace. Consumers now can request organization for the type of products they want and how, when, where they want to learn about these products. This can only pose a problem to the advertisers if user generated adverts are seen as advertisements directly created by the brand. Moreover, before buying a product, consumers often like to read the reviews and view the rating of the product on social media. It can alter the purchase decision process of the consumers. Consumers can easily identify alternatives to the product through these reviews which can be a significant threat to the brand itself. It is a consumer world, consumers can either make a product succeed or damage its reputation.  –  read chp 10 1.6   Discuss the issue of ethics in advertising. Government authorities regulate the advertisements through the code of behavior acceptable in a country. Unethical advertising can be caused by egoism. Marketers create products that would
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