Chpt 11 Vocab

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    Chpt 11 Vocab Industrial Revolution- The social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce, and manufactoring that resulted from technological innovations Location theory- predicting where businesses will or should be located Variable costs- Costs that change directly with the amount of production (e.g., energy supply and labor costs) Friction of distance- the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance Least cost theory- Model developed by Alfred Weber - according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses; labor, transportation, and agglomeration Agglomeration- When a substantial number of enterprises cluster in the same area, as happens in a large industrial city, they can provide assistance to each other through shared talents, services, and facilities Deglomeration- Industries leave the crowded urban areas of the U.S. eastern megalopolis and move to other locations Locational interdependence- Theory developed by Harold Hotelling that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible Primary industrial regions- Western and Central Europe, Eastern North America, Russia and Ukraine, and Eastern Asia Break-of-bulk point- cargo is transported from one mode of transportation (a ship) to another mode (truck or train) Fordist- A highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial  production and labor (assembly lines) Post-Fordist- A more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced; instead production has been accelerated by multinational companies that shift production    Just-in-time- Rather than keeping a large inventory of components or  products, companies keep just what they need for short-term production and new parts are shippd quickly when needed Global division of labor- Phenomenon whereby corporations and others ca draw from labor markets around the wrld, made possible by the compression of time and space thrugh innovation in communication and transportation systems Intermodal connections- Places where two or moremodes of transportation meet in order to ease the flow of goods and reduce the costs of transportation Deindustrialization- Process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to swich to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment Outsourced- With reference to production, to turn over in part of in total to a third party Offshore- With reference to production, to outsource to a third party located outside of the country Sunbelt- Southern region of the United States, stretching through the Southeast to the Southwest Technopole- An area plannd for high tenchology where agglomeration built on a synergy among technological companies occurs Distance decay- The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction  
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