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  ã  A time-dependent perturbation of an elastic medium (e.g. a rupture, an earthquake, a meteorite impact, a nuclear explosion etc.) generates elastic waves emanating from the source region. These disturbances produce local changes in stress and strain. ã To understand the propagation of elastic waves we need to describe kinematically the deformation of our medium and the resulting forces (stress). The relation between deformation and stress is governed by elastic constants. ã The time-dependence of these disturbances will lead us to the elastic wave equation as a consequence of conservation of energy and momentum. Seismic Wave Theory  ã Stress-strain ãHooke’ Law   ã Elastic constants ã Seismic Wave  Force, Pressure and Stress  AF  AreaForceStress     2 / m N  ….. Unit is Pascal (Pa) or Note: Most of engineering fields used kPa, MPa, GPa.   ( Simbol  –  Sigma) Force  is any influence which tends to change the motion of an object. In other words, a force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity. Pressure  (symbol: p  or P ) is the ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed. Stress  is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other.
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