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Collectivisation in China

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How collectivisation worked in China under Chairman Mao
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  Mao and Collectivisation During the later 1920s, collectivisation was introduced in the Soviet Union. This was introduced very rapidly, within the course of a year. It led to a rapid fall in agricultural production, and to faine in which soewhere !etween si and ten illion peasants died. #ne $ey reason for this was that there was signi%cant peasant resistance, especially fro the richer peasants $nown as $ula$s. &icher peasants destroyed crops, tools and anials rather than share the in a collective far. Stalin rounded up opponents and, although nu!ers are hard to deterine, as any as 10 illion $ula$s ay have !een deported to caps.'y the early 19(0s, ine)uality was growing in the *hinese countryside. +lthough land had !een redistri!uted, poorer peasants were !eing forced to sell their land in order to survive. ao felt that the creation of collective fars was the solution.-ow can you avoid a siilar e perience in *hina Will you allow peasants to retain any land which is theirs alone, or mustall land be shared?How will you persuade peasants that collectivisation is a valuable policy?Are there ways in which the policy can be introduced gradually?Should collectivisation even be a priority?  This last )uestion divided the *ounist partyao / it is crucial to drive collectivisation forward*ollectivisation ay allow agricultural production to increase. This will allow *hinese agriculture to feed the countrys people. If production increases, this will also allow *hina to earn iportant foreign currency which can !e used to develop *hinese industry.+lthough land refor has given the poor peasants ore land, and so adethe countryside ore e)ual, ine)uality is creeping !ac$. Soe of the poorest peasants are !eing forced to sell their land in order to survive, andthis is allowing richer peasants to strengthen their positions. #nly !y introducing collective fars, in which all private property is a!olished, can the return of ine)uality !e prevented.3iu Shao)i, *hen 4un and 3i 5uchun / collectivisation is not the priority*ollectivisation will only !e really successful once the peasants have access to odern inputs such as achinery and agricultural cheicals.  There is therefore little point in introducing collectivisation until industry has !een developed further.  The priority is to ensure that the countryside is as productive as possi!le, so that pro%t fro the countryside can !e used to support the towns and industrial developent. +griculture ay !e ost productive if ine)uality isallowed to persist.  Steps to collectivisation 19(2 / utual +id Teas introduced / Up to 10 peasant households grouped together to share la!our, tools and anials19(26 / +gricultural 7roducers *ooperatives / these grouped 60 / (0 peasant failies. They fared the land together, although each faily retained the ownership of their land, and pro%ts were shared on the !asis of land ownership, so those with large land holdings received a large proportion of the pro%ts.19(( / 8-igher stage +7*s introduced / 200600 households. 7ro%ts were no longer shared on the !asis of land ownership, so the largest landowners were no longer guaranteed the greatest share of the pro%ts. 7easants still, in theory, owned the land, and they were allowed to $eep private plots for their own use.
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