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  iii Colorants and auxiliaries ORGANIC CHEMISTRY AND APPLICATION PROPERTIES Second Edition Volume 2 – Auxiliaries 2002Society of Dyers and ColouristsEdited by John Shore Formerly of BTTG/Shirley and ICI Dyes (now DyStar), Manchester, UK   iv ISBN 0 901956 78 3 Copyright © 2002 Society of Dyers and Colourists. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means withoutthe prior permission of the copyright owners.Published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists, PO Box 244, Perkin House, 82 Grattan Road,Bradford, West Yorkshire BD1 2JB, England, on behalf of the Dyers’ Company PublicationsTrust.This book was produced under the auspices of the Dyers’ Company Publications Trust. The Trustwas instituted by the Worshipful Company of Dyers of the City of London in 1971 to encouragethe publication of textbooks and other aids to learning in the science and technology of colour andcoloration and related fields. The Society of Dyers and Colourists acts as trustee to the fund.Typeset by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and printed by Hobbs The Printers, Hampshire, UK.  v Contributors  John Shore Formerly of BTTG/Shirley and ICI Dyes (now DyStar), Manchester, UK  Terence M Baldwinson Formerly Dye & Information Service Manager, Yorkshire Chemicals plc, Leeds, UK   vi Contents PrefaceixCHAPTER 8  Functions and properties of dyeing and printing auxiliaries 4718.1The need for auxiliaries 4718.2The general types and characteristics of auxiliaries 474References 476CHAPTER 9 The chemistry and properties of surfactants 4779.1Introduction 4779.2Hydrophiles 4779.3Hydrophobes 4779.4Anionic surfactants 4799.5Cationic surfactants 4859.6Nonionic surfactants 4869.7Amphoteric surfactants 4899.8The general properties of surfactants 490References 496CHAPTER 10 Classification of dyeing and printing auxiliaries by function 49710.1Electrolytes and pH control 49710.2Sequestering agents 50510.3Macromolecular complexing agents 51910.4Enzymes 53910.5Preparation of substrates 55310.6Dispersing and solubilising agents 63610.7Levelling and retarding agents 64210.8Thickening agents, migration inhibitors and hydrotropic agents used in printing and continuous dyeing 64510.9Treatments to alter dyeing properties or enhance fastness 66410.10Agents for fibre lubrication, softening, antistatic effects, soil release, soil repellency and bactericidal activity 70510.11Foaming and defoaming agents 744References 750
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