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Comfort women

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Comfort women
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   Comfort Women –  the issue of women abuse during the WW II Using euphemism “ comfort women “  is considered untrue and offensive description of sexual abuse and enslaving of women by Japanese Army during the war. 1  This term is used in the official literature of Japan and China and in the compensation claims. The term “comfort women” relates to women who were forced to prostitution and formed the part of corpus for  prostitution established by Japanese Empire during the WWII. 2  The estimated number of women that were forcefully taken, kidnapped or taken under false  promises that they would work in the factory varies from from twenty thousand to four hundred thousand , however the exact number has not been determined. The first “comfort station” or military brothel was established in Shanghai in 1932. Women enslaved there were taken from China, Korea, Taiwan, Manchuria (Manzhu Guo) Philippines and Indonesia. 3  Majority of women who were victims and forced to prostitution from South Korea, Philippines and Indonesia refused compensation from Asian Pacific Fund for Women since it was a private fund established by the Japanese Red Cross instead of Japanese Government. Japanese government has not accepted responsibility which Japanese imperial army had in establishing so called comfort stations and which was expected by the victims and governments of their countries. 4  By the end of 1990-ies documentation in relation to the military brothels in Tianjin, Shanghai and Nanjing was discovered and both Japanese and Chinese academics conducted researches on the phenomenon of forceful prostitution in China. International symposium on the 1   Sarah Soh, Japan ’s Responsibility towards Comfort Women Survivors, Japan Policy Research Institute,ažurirano, maj 2001, dostupno na: http://www.jpri.org/publications/workingpapers/wp77.html (pristupljeno 13.09.2013)   2   Caroline Rose, Sino-Japanese Relations , Nissan Institute/Routlage Japanese Studies Series, 2005, e-eddition 2005,  p 87   3   Caroline Rose, Sino-Japanese Relations , op.cit., p 87   4 Ibidem ,  p.88.    use of women as sexual slaves was held in April 2000 and in December 2000. Tokyo established the War Crimes Court for Comfort Women. The research discovered much information on the scale and system of sexual slavery. “Stations” were established in twenty one cities in China. Estimates show that there were seventy seven in Shanghai and from forty to fifty in Wuhan. Total number of stations was estimated between thousands and ten thousands and some were operational during the whole war and some during several months. Even though there were big number of women who spoke about their experiences and only small number of them were ready to submit lawsuits to Japanese courts and the first claims were submitted in 1995. 5  So far, there were ten lawsuits in total submitted by the survivors. UN CAT (Committee Against Torture) issued on the 2 nd  of June 2013 official announcement inviting Japanese government to fulfil its obligations within Convention and admit legal responsibility for the crimes of sexual slavery during the WWII through raising awareness of wider public on this issue and its inclusion in the history textbooks, accepting rights of victims to reimbursement and provide them with financial compensations and termination of denial of facts since this way the victims are suffering again. 6  This issue is still very current on the UN agenda and it is important that civil society activities in Japan, regardless of the size, are very important and contribute to the solution of this issue. 5   Ibidem, p.88   6   UN Committee Against Toruture issued recommendation to Japan on the comfort women, 2/6/2013, dostupno na http://wam-peace.org/eng/20130602. (pristupljeno: 10.06.2013 .)
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