Compatible Development of Cryptography

Note for Compatible Development of Cryptography
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  Section 1.2Development of Cryptography Task:  Research on the development of cryptography and fill up the table below with the major events that occurred during each period of time.Read up on the ciphers you come across in your research and other classical ciphers.1900 BC It started in the Egypt town called Menet Khufu near the river Nil. Khnumhotep II was an architect of Pharao Amenemhet II. He built some monuments for the Pharao which had to be documented. Khnumhotep II had the idea to echange some words and tet parts within the document !substitution . In case the document would beenstolen# the thief would not $nd the correct way to the gold treasure. 600 BC Hebrew scribes writing down the boo% of &eremiah used a reversed'alphabet simple substitution cipher %nown as A()A*H. !&eremiah started dictating to )aruch in +,- ) but the chapters containing these bits of cipher are attributed to a source labeled //00 !believed not to be )aruch which could be an editor writing after the )abylonian eile in -12 )# someone contemporaneous with )aruch or even &eremiah himself. A()A*H was one of a few Hebrew ciphers of the time !*AN* . 00 BC  (hucydides tells of orders delivered to the *partan prince and general Pasanius in 32- )E via what could be the earliest system of military cryptography# the s%ytale. As a device for conveying ciphers#the s%ytale consists of a sta4 of wood around which a strip of papyrusis tightly wound. 5riting the message down the length of the sta4# the parchment is unwound to conceal the message. *ince the message appears to be nothing more than a series of disconnected letters# its true meaning remains concealed. However# it seems unli%ely that such a techni6ue was ever used in this way. Ancient tets by Aeneas the (actician# Polybius# and others describe further methods for concealing messages but none of these actually seem tohave been used either !7li%man . (he secret %ey of the tet is the circumference of the wood. 5ith the wrong circumference# the message is unusable. If the wood matches# you are able to read the message. Attac%ing the s%ytale was no big thing# this at least when you understood the principle of the algorithm. 0 BC  (he aesar ipher was developed during the roman empire. (he code was based on the replacement of each plaintet character with a new shifted character in the alphabet. (he secret %ey of the shift between the plaintet and the ciphertet. As eample# if the shift is -and the plaintet is*E8E( 9:8 ;:<the ciphertet would loo% as in the eample below.=&H5&; K(5 >(? (his because you calculate plaintet @ shift !*ecret Key  ciphertetwhich is* @ *hift !-  =. !00 ryptanalysis and fre6uency analysis leading to techni6ues for brea%ing monoalphabetic substitution ciphers are developed in A Manuscript on >eciphering ryptographic Messages by the Muslim  mathematician# Al'Kindi !Al%indus # who may have been inspired by tetual analysis of the Bur0an. He also covers methods of encipherments# cryptanalysis of certain encipherments# and statistical analysis of letters and letter combinations in Arabic. 100 C-C1 ' &ohannes (rithemius0 boo% on cryptology C--D ' )ellaso invents igenFre cipher C-1- ' igenFre0s boo% on ciphers C-1+ ' ryptanalysis used by spy master *ir 9rancis 5alsingham to implicate Mary Bueen of *cots in the )abington Plot to murder BueenEliGabeth I of England. Bueen Mary was eventually eecuted. 1600 C+3C ' 5il%ins0 Mercury !English boo% on cryptology 1!00 C1, ' C3 7eorge *covell0s wor% on Napoleonic ciphers during the Peninsular 5arC1DC ' &oseph Henry proposes and builds an electric telegraphC1D- ' *amuel Morse develops the Morse codeC1-3 ' 5heatstone invents Playfair cipherC1-3 ' )abbage0s method for brea%ing polyalphabetic ciphers !pub C1+D by Kasis%i C1-- ' 9or the English side in rimean 5ar# harles )abbage bro%e igenFre0s auto%ey cipher !the 0unbrea%able cipher0 of the time as well as the much wea%er cipher that is called igenFre cipher today. >ue to secrecy it was also discovered and attributed somewhat later to the Prussian 9riedrich Kasis%i.C11D ' Auguste Kerc%ho4s0 a ryptographie militare published# containing his celebrated laws of cryptographyC11- ' )eale ciphers publishedC13 ' (he >reyfus A4air in 9rance involves the use of cryptography# and its misuse# in regard to false documents. 1900 CC- ' 5illiam 9riedman applies statistics to cryptanalysis !coincidence counting# etc CC2 ' ?immermann telegram intercepted and decrypted# advancing <.*. entry into 5orld 5ar I.CC ' Edward Hebern inventsJpatents $rst rotor machine design a rotor machine is an electro'mechanical device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages. A rotor machine is an electro'mechanical device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages 19 0 CC ' 5ashington Naval onference ' <.*. negotiating team aided by decryption of &apanese diplomatic telegrams. (he message revealed the lowest naval ratio that would be acceptable to (o%yoL <.*. negotiators used this %nowledge to push the &apanese to giving in.C3 ' MI1 !Herbert ;ardley# et al provide brea%s of assorted trac in support of <* position at 5ashington Naval onferenceL aiding other cryptanalysts to brea% more codes.CD ' $rst brea% of 7erman Army Enigma by Marian 8eews%i in Poland# giving them a umpstart )ritish reading of the Enigma' a rotormachine used to generate ciphers for the encryption and decryption of secret messages. CDC ' (he American )lac% hamber !cryptography head6uarters byHerbert :. ;ardley is published# revealing much about American  cryptography# giving people an opportunity to learn more about it. 19#0 C3, ' brea% of &apan0s P<8PE machine cipher by *I* team. However# <.*. Naval base at Pearl Harbor surprised by &apanese attac%# despite <.*. brea%ing of &apanese codes. <.*. enters 5orld 5ar IIApril C3D ' Admiral ;amamoto# architect of Pearl Harbor attac%# is assassinated by <.*. forces who %now his itinerary from decoded messages. (his shows that the lives of cryptographers are fragile.>ecember C3D ' (he olossus computer was built# by (homas 9lowers at (he Post :ce 8esearch aboratories in ondon# to crac% the 7erman orenG cipher !*?3 . It was so advanced that the computer had to be destroyed# lest it fell into the wrong hands.C3+ ' EN:NA0s $rst brea% into *oviet espionage trac from early C3,sNavao codetal%ers were Navao people who were employed to transmit and deliver secret messages in the battle$eld. It was etremely useful as their language was completely di4erently structured as compared to the commonly used ones. <p till today# the Navao language cannot be crac%ed without the %nowledge of thelanguage itself. 196! C+1 ' &ohn Anthony 5al%er wal%s into the *oviet <nion0s embassy in 5ashington and sells information on K'2 cipher machine. (he 5al%er spy ring operates until C1-.C23 ' Horst 9eistel develops 9eistel networ% bloc% cipher design. C2+ ' the >ata Encryption *tandard was published as an ocial 9ederal Information Processing *tandard !9IP* for the <nited *tates. 19$6  (he >ata Encryption *tandard was published as an ocial 9ederal Information Processing *tandard !9IP* for the <nited *tates. (he >ata Encryption *tandard !>E* is a cipher !a method for encrypting information selected as an ocial 9ederal Information Processing *tandard !9IP* for the <nited *tates in C2+ and which has subse6uently enoyed widespread use internationally. (he algorithm was initially controversial with classi$ed design elements# a relativelyshort %ey length# and suspicions about a National *ecurity Agency !N*A bac%door. >E* conse6uently came under intense academic scrutiny which motivated the modern understanding of bloc% ciphers and their cryptanalysis.>ie and Hellman publish New Directions in Cryptography. 1991 Phil ?immermann releases the public %ey encryption program P7P along with its source code# which 6uic%ly appears on the Internet. Pretty 7ood Privacy !P7P is a computer program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication. P7P is often used for signing# encrypting and decrypting e'mails to increase the security of e'mail communications. 000 8*A *ecurity Inc. released their 8*A algorithm into the public domain# a few days in advance of their <.*. Patent 3#3,-#1 epiring. 9ollowing the relaation of the <.*. government eport restrictions# this removed one of the last barriers to the world'wide distribution of much software based on cryptographic systems 010 Buantum cryptography# or 6uantum %ey distribution !BK> # uses 6uantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random bit string %nown only to them# which can be used as a %ey to encrypt and decrypt messages.  An important and uni6ue property of 6uantum cryptography is the ability of the two communicating users to detect the presence of any third party trying to gain %nowledge of the %ey. (his results from a fundamental part of 6uantum mechanicsO the process of measuring a6uantum system in general disturbs the system. A third party trying to eavesdrop on the %ey must in some way measure it# thus introducing detectable anomalies. )y using 6uantum superpositions or 6uantum entanglement and transmitting information in 6uantum states# a communication system can be implemented which detects eavesdropping. If the level of eavesdropping is below a certain threshold a %ey can be produced which is guaranteed as secure !i.e. the eavesdropper has no information about # otherwise no secure %eyis possible and communication is aborted. (he security of 6uantum cryptography relies on the foundations of 6uantum mechanics# in contrast to traditional public %ey cryptography which relies on the computational diculty of certain mathematical functions# and cannot provide any indication of eavesdropping or guarantee of %ey security.

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