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Computer and Internet Crimes

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  Chapter 3: Computer and Internet Crimes  The security of information technology used in business is of utmost importance. Confidential business data and private customer and employee information must be safeguarded, and systems must be protected against malicious acts of theft or disruption. Although the necessity of security is obvious, it must often be balanced against other business needs and issues. Most common security incidents:    Virus    Insider abuse    Laptop theft    Unauthorized access    Denial of service    Instant messaging abuse    Bots Why Computer Incidents are so prevalent?    Increasing Complexity Increases Vulnerability The computing environment has become enormously complex. Networks, computers, operating systems, applications, Web sites, switches, routers, and gateways are interconnected and driven by hundreds of millions of lines of code. The number of possible entry points to a network expands continually as more devices are added, increasing the possibility of security breaches.    Higher Computer User Expectations H elp desk personnel sometimes forget to verify users’ identities or to check whether they are authorized to perform a requested action. In addition, even though they have been warned against doing so, some computer users share their login ID and password with other coworkers who have forgotten their own passwords. This can enable workers to gain access to information systems and data for which they are not authorized.    Expanding and Changing Systems Introduce New Risks Business has moved from an era of stand-alone computers, in which critical data was stored on an isolated mainframe computer in a locked room, to an era in which personal computers connect to networks with millions of other computers, all capable of sharing information. Businesses have moved quickly into e-commerce, mobile computing, collaborative work groups, global business, and inter organizational information systems. Information technology has become ubiquitous and is a necessary tool for organizations to achieve their goals.    Increased Reliance on Commercial Software with Known Vulnerabilities In computing, an exploit  is an attack on an information system that takes advantage of particular system vulnerability. Often this attack is due to poor system design or implementation. Once the vulnerability is discovered, software developers quickly create and issue a “fix,” or patch, to eliminate the problem. Users of the system or application are responsible for obtaining and installing the patch, which they can usually download from the Web. (These fixes are in addition to other maintenance and project work that software developers perform.) Any delay in installing a patch exposes the user to a security breach. All these bugs and potential vulnerabilities create a serious work overload for developers, who are responsible for security fixes. Clearly, it can be difficult to keep up with all the required patches. A zero-day attack  takes place before the security community or software developer knows about the vulnerability or has been able to repair it. Although the potential for damage from zero-day exploits is great, few such attacks have been documented as of this writing. Even when vulnerabilities are exposed, many corporate IT organizations pr efer to use already installed software “as is” rather than implement security fixes that will either make the software harder to use or eliminate “nice -to- have” features suggested by current users or potential customers that will help sell the software. Types of Exploits     Viruses Computer virus has become an umbrella term for many types of malicious code. Technically, a virus is a piece of  programming code, usually disguised as something else that causes a computer to behave in an unexpected and usually undesirable manner  . Often a virus is attached to a file, so that when the infected file is opened, the virus executes. Other viruses sit in a computer’s memory and infect files as the computer opens, modifies, or creates them. Most viruses deliver a “payload,” or malicious software that causes the computer to perform in an unexpected way. A true virus does not spread itself from computer to computer.  A virus is spread to other machines when a computer user opens an infected e-mail attachment, downloads an infected program, or visits infected Web sites . In other words, it takes action by the “infected” computer user to spread a virus.      Worms Worm is a harmful program that resides in the active memory of the computer and duplicates itself. Worms differ from viruses in that they can propagate without human intervention.    Trojan Horse A Trojan horse is a program in which malicious code is hidden inside a seemingly harmless program.  The program’s harmful payload can enable the hacker to destroy hard drives, corrupt  files, control the computer remotely, launch attacks against other computers, steal passwords or Social Security numbers, and spy on users by recording keystrokes and transmitting them to a server operated by a third party. A Trojan horse can be delivered as an e-mail attachment, downloaded from a Web site, or contracted via a removable media device such as a CD/DVD or USB memory stick. Once an unsuspecting user executes the program that hosts the Trojan horse, the malicious payload is automatically launched as well — with no telltale signs. Another type of Trojan horse is a logic bomb , which executes when it is triggered by a specific event.    Botnets A botnet is a large group of computers controlled from one or more remote locations by hackers, without the knowledge or consent of their owners . Botnets are frequently used to distribute spam and malicious code. The collective processing capacity of some botnets exceeds that of the world’s most powerful supercomputers. Cutwail , a large botnet, controlled approximately one million active bots at one time. It has become the primary means for distributing spam, malware, and phishing scams.    Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Attacks A distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS) is one in which a malicious hacker takes over computers on the Internet and causes them to flood a target site with demands for data and other small tasks.  A distributed denial-of-service attack does not involve infiltration of the targeted system. Instead, it keeps the target so busy responding to a stream of automated requests that legitimate users cannot get in — the Internet equivalent of dialing a telephone number repeatedly so that all other callers hear a busy signal. The targeted machine “holds the line open” while waiting for a reply that never comes, and eventually the requests exhaust all resources of the target. The software to initiate a denial-of-service attack is simple to use and readily available at hacker sites. A tiny program is downloaded surreptitiously from the attacker’s computer to dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of computers all over the world. Based on a command by the attacker or at a preset time, these computers (called zombies) go into action, each sending a simple request for access to the target site again and again — dozens of times per second. The zombies involved in a denial-of-service attack are often seriously compromised and are left with more enduring problems than their target. As a result, zombie machines need to be inspected to ensure that the attacker software is completely removed from the system.    Rootkits A rootkit is a set of programs that enables its user to gain administrator level access to a computer without the end user’s consent or knowledge . Once installed, the attacker can gain full control of the system and even obscure the presence of the rootkit from legitimate system administrators. Attackers can use the rootkit to execute files, access logs, monitor user activity, and change the computer’s configuration. Rootkits are one part of a blended  threat, consisting of the dropper  , loader  , and rootkit  . The dropper code gets the rootkit installation started and can  be activated by clicking on a link to a malicious Web site in an e-mail or opening an infected .pdf file. The dropper launches the loader program and then deletes itself. The loader loads the rootkit into memory; at that point the computer has been compromised. The fundamental problem with trying to detect a rootkit is that the operating system currently running cannot be trusted to provide valid test results.   When it is determined that a computer has been infected with a rootkit, there is little to do but reformat the disk; reinstall the operating system and all applications; and reconfigure the user’s settings, such as mapped drives.    Spam E-mail spam is the abuse of e-mail systems to send unsolicited e-mail to large numbers of people . Most spam is a form of low-cost commercial advertising, sometimes for questionable products such as pornography, phony get-rich-quick schemes, and worthless stock. Spam is also an extremely inexpensive method of marketing used by many legitimate organizations. Spam may also be used to deliver harmful worms or other malware. The cost of creating an e-mail campaign for a product or service is several hundred to a few thousand dollars, compared to tens of thousands of dollars for direct-mail campaigns. A partial solution to this problem is the use of CAPTCHA to ensure that only humans obtain free accounts. Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) software generates and grades tests that humans can pass but all but the most sophisticated computer programs cannot.    Phishing Phishing is the act of using e-mail fraudulently to try to get the recipient to reveal personal data . In a phishing scam, con artists send legitimate looking e-mails urging the recipient to take action to avoid a negative consequence or to receive a reward. The requested action may involve clicking on a link to a Web site or opening an e-mail attachment. These e-mails lead consumers to counterfeit Web sites designed to trick them into divulging personal data. Savvy users often become suspicious and refuse to enter data into the fake Web sites; however, sometimes just accessing the Web site can trigger an automatic and unnoticeable download of malicious software to a computer. eBay  , PayPal  , and Citibank   are among the Web sites that phishers spoof most frequently. Spear-phishing  is a variation of phishing in which the phisher sends fraudulent e- mails to a certain organization’s employees . The phony e-mails are designed to look like they came from high-level executives within the organization. Employees are again directed to a fake Web site and then asked to enter personal information. Types of Perpetrators A.   Hackers and Crackers Hackers  test the limitations of information systems out of intellectual curiosity  — to see whether they can gain access and how far they can go . They have at least a basic understanding of information systems and security features, and much of their motivation comes from a desire to learn even more. The term hacker has evolved over the years, leading to its negative connotation today rather than the positive one it used to have. While there is a vocal minority who believe that hackers perform a service by identifying security weaknesses, most people now believe that a hacker no longer has the right to explore public or private networks. Some hackers are smart and talented, but many are technically inept and are referred to as lamers  or script   kiddies  by more skilled hackers. Surprisingly, hackers have a wealth of available resources to hone their skills — online chat groups, Web sites, downloadable hacker tools, and even hacker conventions. Cracking  is a form of hacking that is clearly criminal activity  . Crackers break into other people’s networks and systems to cause harm — defacing Web pages, crashing computers, spreading harmful programs or hateful messages, and writing scripts and automated programs that let other people do the same things. B.   Malicious Insiders A major security concern  for companies is the malicious insider — an ever present and extremely dangerous adversary. Companies are exposed to a wide range of fraud risks, including diversion of company funds, theft of assets, fraud connected with bidding processes, invoice and payment fraud, computer fraud, and credit card fraud.  Malicious insiders are extremely difficult to detect or stop because they are often authorized to access the very systems they abuse. Although insiders are less likely to attack systems than outside hackers or crackers are, the company’s systems are far more vulnerable to them. Most computer security measures are designed to stop external attackers but are nearly powerless against insiders. Insiders have knowledge of individual systems, which often includes the procedures to gain access to login IDs and passwords. Insiders know how the systems work and where the weak points are. Their knowledge of organizational structure and security procedures helps them avoid investigation of their actions. C.   Industrial Spies Industrial spies   use illegal means to obtain trade secrets from competitors of their sponsor  . Trade secrets are most often stolen by insiders, such as disgruntled employees and ex-employees. Competitive intelligence  uses legal techniques to gather information that is available to the public. Participants gather and analyze information from financial reports, trade journals, public filings, and printed interviews with company officials. Industrial espionage   involves using illegal means to obtain information that is not available to the    public . D.   Cybercriminals Information technology provides a new and highly profitable venue for cybercriminals, who are attracted to the use of information technology for its ease in reaching millions of potential victims. Cybercriminals are motivated by the potential for monetary gain and hack into corporate computers to steal, often by transferring money from one account to another to another — leaving a hopelessly complicated trail for law enforcement officers to follow. Cybercriminals also engage in all forms of computer fraud — stealing and reselling credit card numbers, personal identities, and cell phone IDs. Because the potential for monetary gain is high, they can afford to spend large sums of money to buy the technical expertise and access they need from unethical insiders. Most companies are afraid to admit publicly that they have been hit by online fraud or hackers because they don’t want to hurt their reputations.   E.   Hacktivists and Cyberterrorists Hacktivism , a combination of the words hacking and activism, is hacking to achieve a political or social goal  . A cyberterrorist   launches computer-based attacks against other computers or networks in an attempt to intimidate or coerce a government in order to advance certain political or social objectives . Cyberterrorists are more extreme in their goals than hacktivists although there is no clear demarcation line. Because of the Internet, cyberattacks can easily srcinate from foreign countries, making detection and retaliation much more difficult. Cyberterrorists seek to cause harm rather than gather information, and they use techniques that destroy or disrupt services. Implementing Trustworthy Computing Trustworthy computing   is a method of computing that delivers secure, private, and reliable computing experiences based on sound business practices . Everyone who provides computing services (software and hardware manufacturers, consultants, programmers) knows that this is a priority for their customers. Risk Assessment A risk assessment is the  process of assessing security- related risks to an organization’s computers and networks from both internal and external threats . The goal of risk assessment is to identify which investments of time and resources will best protect the organization from its most likely and serious threats. In the context of an IT risk assessment, an asset   is any hardware, software, information system, network, or database that is used by the organization to achieve its business objectives . A loss event   is   any occurrence that has a negative impact on an asset, such as a computer contracting a virus or a Web site undergoing a distributed denial-of-service attack  .
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