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  Ans.-1. BPR and Information Technology Business Process Re-engineering has rapidly developed towards a new management philosophy. The inherent business process orientation changes the perspective of international management from a structural to that of a process view. The re-engineering of business processes is only one aspect of the management of business processes. In particular, the re-engineering of international business processes needs special attention, because the multi-faceted structure of multinational corporations increases the complexity of business processes, there by influencing the options for redesign. Business Process Re-engineering has rapidly developed towards a new management philosophy based upon predecessors like Total Quality Management, Overhead Value Analysis, Kanban or Just-In-Time-Management. Business processes can be re-engineered by redesigning the steps, by changing the logical and temporal sequence of the steps, or by changing any other characteristics of the process. The role of IT is discussed in contradictory way. Advocates of information systems favor the view that the new technology is an enabler of process re-engineering. IT has to be monitored constantly to determine whether it can generate new process designs or contribute to the performance of a business process. The breakthrough of BPR is closely connected with IT, which opens new dimensions of process reorganization. Moreover, those who take the initiative in process improvement/redesign, influence the role of IT. If the data processing department initiates the process change, then IT will have more of a generator function for new process redesigns. If on the other hand, the top management sets off the change process, then the process will be first restructured and later optimized through IT. Ans.-2 . Contemporary approaches to MIS  When an information system is being developed, much importance should be given to the structure of the organization, culture of the organization, etc. But along with these, especial attention should also be given to the technical side of MIS. The various contemporary approaches to MIS development can be summarized as 1.The Technical Approach  a) Based on the mathematical and the normative models. b) Physical technology forms the back bone of such an approach. c) Such an approach mainly finds much needed contributions from the disciplines like computer science, management science, operations research etc. 2. The Behavioral Approach  a) Based on the impact of the behavior and also on the response of the people in the organization. b) Motivational Feasibility forms a very important and demanding part of such an approach towards MIS development. 3. The Socio Technical Approach  a) In the beginning, this approach was finding it hard to survive –  but now it is being accepted worldwide and is also being implemented at a very large scale. b) Involves key involvement of both of the above explained approaches. c) Improves the performance of the information system as a whole. Porter Millar postulates  Porter and Millar were the ones, who explained the affect of the information technology on the competition. According to them information technology is  affecting competition in the following ways: a) Causes changes in the structure of the industry and as a result of this, rule of competitions are altered. b) Spawning of the whole new business takes place, and in much of the cases –  it is caused from within the company’s existing operations.  c) Competitive advantage is created usually because of the new ways; the companies get to outperform their rivals. (a). Technical Approach The technical approach emphasises scientific modelling of businesses, technology and capabilities of systems. Management science emphasises models of decision-making and management. Combining this with an understanding of technical issues and computer science, this provides the technical approach to modern management.    Business modelling,    Computer science,    Operations research (b). Behavioural Approach The behavioural approach looks at the psychological, sociological and economic aspects of the system. This approach deals with issues of: Design, Implementation, Business integration, Management. The sociological  approach looks at these aspects from the point of view of how groups work together and the nature of organisations. The psychological  approach looks at how people perceive and use information systems, especially with respect to decision making. The economic  approach looks at how IT systems affect control structures and costs both within a company and in markets. Ans-3. Q.  What are the benefits & limitations of the relational database model for business application today? Why is the object-orienteddatabase model gaining acceptance for developing application and managing the hypermedia database at the business website? A.    Relational Database Model is based on tables and for management purposes. This model was invented by Edgar F. Codd in 1969.Edgar at that time was working at IBM. In the relational model of a database, all data is represented in terms of “tuples”  & grouped into“   relations”.  A database organized in terms of the relational model is a relational database. Benefits of Relation base model.  Relational Database Model is widely used around the world, as its: 1. Easy to use: In Relational model data is easily presented & visible. So revision becomes quite easy as the information is stored insimple tables & rows. Such data is attractive for the first time user. 2. Flexibility:  An operator or a user can easily link & extract the data & can get the desired information easily. 3. Precision : The usage of relational algebra and calculus in the manipulation of the relations between the tables ensures that here is no ambiguity (doubtfulness or uncertainty), which may otherwise come while establishing the links in a complicated network type database. 4. Security: Security control & authorization can be implemented on various tables, which gives a sense of control to the created of the table. If someone requires the protective data then he needs to have the permission from the creator. 5. Data Independence : Data independence is achieved more easily with normalization structure used in a relational database than in the more complicated tree or network structure.6. Data Manipulation Language : The possibility of responding to query by means of a language based on relational algebra and relational calculus e.g SQL is easy in the relational database approach. For data organized in other structure the query language either becomes complex or extremely limited in its capabilities. Limitations of relational database model  1. Performance:  A major constraint in the use of relational database system is machine performance. If there is an enormous data in the tables then the performance gets affected in responding to the sql queries. 2. Physical Storage Consumption : With an interactive system, for example an operation like join would depend upon the physical storage also. It is, therefore common in relational databases to tune the databases and in such a case the physical data layout would be chosen so as to give good performance in the most frequently run operations. It therefore would naturally result in the fact that the lays frequently run operations would tend to become even more shared. 3. Slow extraction of meaning from data : If the data is naturally organized in a hierarchical manner and stored as such, the hierarchical approach may give quick meaning for that data. Object-oriented database model gaining acceptance for developing application and managing the hypermedia database at the business website because it’s  innovative. Multimedia-web based applications for internet & corporate intranets/ extranets have become a major application area for object technology. Object-oriented database model can handle complex data such as graphics, pictures, voice & text, better than the old structure. They are easy to use & they are the key technology being used in multimedia based applications for Internet & corporate extranets. As well as they support inheritance-new objects which can be automatically created by replacing some or all the characteristics of one or more parent objectives.   
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