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Consumer Behaviour

activities people undertake when obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services
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    Consumer behavior  involves the psychological processes that consumers go through in recognizing needs, finding ways to solve these needs, making purchase decisions (e.g., whether or not to purchase a product and, if so, which brand and where), interpret information, make  plans, and implement these plans (e.g., by engaging in comparison shopping or actually  purchasing a product). The Diffusion Process According to Rogers, diffusion is defined as the process by which an innovation (new idea) is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. Vertical coordination, a high degree of dependence and interlocking relationships among channel members, also increases the rate of diffusion. Some members of the social system are adopters  –    people who have made a decision to use a new product  –   whereas others are nonadopters. ã  Innovators are the first consumer group to adopt products. Consumers who are innovators for many products are said to be polymorphic, whereas those who are innovators for only one  product are monomorphic. ã  Early adopters tend to be opinion leaders and role models for others, with good social skills and respect within larger social systems. ã  The early majority consists of consumers who deliberate extensively before buying new  products, yet adopt them just before the average time it takes the target population as a whole. ã  The late majority tends to be cautious when evaluating innovations, taking more time than average to adopt them, and often at the pressure of peers.  ã  Laggards, the last group to adopt innovations, tend to be anchored in the past, are suspicious of the new, and exhibit the lowest level of innovativeness among adopters. Innovativeness is the degree to which an individual adopts an innovation earlier than other members of a social system. Cognitive innovators have a strong preference for new mental experiences, whereas sensory innovators have a strong preference for new sensory experiences. Market mavens: Psychological influences The marketing literature has identified three distinct types of influential consumers: the innovators, the opinion leaders, and the market maven. Innovators are defined as consumers who tend to adopt products comparatively early within a given social system. Opinion leaders are defined as individuals who influence the purchasing behavior of other consumers in a specific  product domain. Market mavens are defined as “individuals who have information about many kinds of products, places to shop, and other facets of markets, and initiate discussions with consumers and respond to requests from consumers for market information”. Market mavens are consumers who highly involved in the marketplace and represent an important source of marketplace information to other consumers. Global self-esteem: an overall estimate of general self-worth; a level of self-acceptance or respect for oneself; a trait or tendency relatively stable and enduring, composed of all subordinate traits and characteristics within the self. Tendency to conform: a global, enduring personality trait in which the individual is predisposed to acquiesce to social norms prescribed by reference groups that are relevant and important to the individual.  Consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence: the need to identify or e nhance one’s image with significant others through the acquisition and use of products and brands, the willingness to conform to the expectations of others regarding purchase decisions and/or the tendency to learn about products and services by observing others and/or seeking information from others. Consumer need for uniqueness: an enduring personality trait by which consumers pursue dissimilarity through products and brands in an effort to develop a distinctive self and social image. Domain-specific opinion leadership: consumer influence on individuals in specific product areas. Lecture 8: Dissatisfaction Satisfaction: ã  A positive post-consumption evaluation that occurs when the consumption experience either meets or exceed expectations. ã  The custom er’s fulfillment response. It is a judgment that a product/service feature, or the  product/service itself, provides a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfillment. Expectancy disconfirmation model  ã  Negative disconfirmation: the result that occurs when, after purchase, the product delivers less than what was srcinally expected. ã  Positive confirmation: the result that occurs when, after consumption, the product delivers more than what was srcinally expected. ã   Confirmation: when a product’s  performance meets certain expectations. Attribution: how individuals assign causes of events, other’s behavior, and their own behavior to the product/service, to the situation or to themselves. Covariation model of attribution (Kelley, 1967) Can product performance be attributed to the product, person or situation? Three main types of information: 1. Distinctiveness: different from other products/brands? 2. Consistency: Does it always perform? 3. Consensus: How do other consumers feel about the product? Reporting-bias: advertiser under-reports undesirable performances, while being much more open on desirable attributes (advertiser acts out of self-interest). Knowledge-bias: advertiser is largely unaware of the alternatives.
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