Coriander paper.pdf

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  EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON GROWTH, SEED YIELD ANDQUALITY OF CORIANDER (CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L.) CV. SUDHA Vannam Yugandhar*, P.   Syam Sundar Reddy, G. Thanuja Sivaram and D. Srinivasa Reddy 1 Deptt.   of    Horticulture,   Horticultural   College   and   Research   Institute,   Anantharajupet-516   105,   YSR   Dist.   (A.P.),   India. 1 Deptt.   of    Entomology,   Horticultural   College   and   Research   Institute,   Anantharajupet-516   105,   YSR   Dist.   (A.P.),   India. Abstract A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2013-14 at Research Farm, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Dr.Y.S.R. Horticultural University, Anantharajupet (Andhra Pradesh), India; to study the effect of growth regulators on growth,yield and quality of coriander   ( Coriandrum sativum L.)   cv. Sudha .  The experiment consists of seven treatments includingcontrol (water spray), two concentrations of GA 3  (50 and 75 ppm), two concentrations of NAA (10 and 25 ppm) and twoconcentrations of cycocel (100 and 250 ppm) as pre-soaking, foliar spray at 30 and 60 DAS replicated thrice in a randomisedblock design. Among the PGRs cycocel 250 ppm recorded maximum number of primary branches and secondary branches perplant, number of umbels per plant, number of umbellets per umbel, number of seeds per umbel, seed yield and B:C ratio wasmaximum with 250 ppm Cycocel. While, maximum plant height was observed in GA 3  75 ppm. However, GA 3 75 ppm took minimum number of days to 50% flowering and maturity. Among the quality parameters, maximum carbohydrate content,protein content and lowest seed moisture content was recorded with GA 3  75 ppm. While, the essential oil content in seedswas maximum with GA 3  50 ppm.  Key words :  Coriander, growth, plant growth regulators, quality, Sudha, yield.  Plant Archives   Vol. 14 No. 2, 2014 pp. 1083-1086  ISSN 0972-5210 Introduction Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annualspice and condiments herb that is mostly used for pleasantaromatic odour. The aroma and taste in coriander aredue to the presence of essential oil, which is used forflavouring liquors, cocoa preparations in confectionaryand the mask offensive odours in pharmaceuticalpreparations. The dried fruits are major ingredients of curry powder. The young plants, as well as the leavesare used in preparation of chutney and also for seasoningin curries and soups. The green leaves are good sourceof vitamin C and A, while seeds are rich in carbohydratesand protein content. Coriander is an important seed spicesin Andhra Pradesh during rabi  season for grain purposeunder rain fed vertisols. The crop has to survive underresidual soil moisture throughout the cropping period andgenerally experiences terminal moisture stress whichresults in poor yields, which is the major constraint inproduction of coriander in Andhra Pradesh   (Sarada et al ., 2008). Plant growth regulators have great potentialin increasing agricultural production and helps in removingmany of the barriers imposed by genetics andenvironment.   PGR’s play an important role in mitigatingthe stress and increasing the flower set.Exogenous application of PGR’s has been reportedto improve the growth and yield of various crops (Bharud et al .,   1988). It is well known that all the PGR’s regulatethe physiological functions or processes of plant.Information regarding the use of plant growth regulatorssuitable for rain fed vertisols in Andhra Pradesh is verymeagre. Keeping this in view, the present field experimentwas conducted to study the effect of plant growthregulators on growth, seed yield and quality of coriander. Materials and Methods Present field experiment was conducted during rabi 2013-14 at Research Farm, Horticultural College andResearch Institute, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University,Anantharajupet, Andhra Pradesh (India) to see the effectof different plant growth regulators on growth, yield andquality of coriander.   The soil of experimental field wassandy clay loamy in texture, with 7.4 pH, low in availablenitrogen (150.70 Kg/ha), medium in available phosphorus *Author for correspondence:  E-mail:  1084Vannam Yugandhar et al. (29.28 Kg/ha) and high in available potassium (316.15Kg/ha).   The experiment consists of seven treatmentsincluding control (water spray), two concentrations of GA 3  (50 and 75 ppm), two concentrations of NAA (10and 25 ppm) and two concentrations of cycocel (100 and250 ppm) as pre-soaking, foliar spray at 30 and 60 DASreplicated thrice in a randomised block design. Seeds weresown in the plot of 2 m × 2m at spacing of 30 cm × 10cm. The crop was fertilized with 12 t of FYM along withNPK @ 45: 40: 30 kg/ha as basal. Another 15 kg N/hawas top dressed at 60 days after sowing. Growthregulators were applied as pre-soaking, foliar spray at30 and 60 DAS as per the treatments and untreatedcontrol plots were sprayed with water. Need basedcultural and plant protection operations were taken upto harvest good crop. Five plant samples from eachreplication were selected at random to record datamorphological, yield and quality attributing characters.The experimental data was analysed statistically by themethod of analysis of variance as out lined by Panseand Sukhatme (1995). The economics of treatment wascalculated on the basis of prevailing market rates. Results and Discussion Morphological characters Table 1: Effect of foliar sprays of plant growth regulators on morphological characters of coriander. Plant heightNumber of primaryNumber of secondary(cm)branches plant -1 branches plant -1 Treatment 3060At3060At3060AtDASDASharvestDASDASharvestDASDASharvest GA 3 50 ppm32.4767.1275.11 3.336.336.473.4712.3315.3341.67GA 3 75 ppm35.4369.2278.09 3.676.676.873.8712.7315.4740.33NAA 10 ppm28.7763.2571.37 2.875.735.932.9311.2713.6744.00NAA 25 ppm30.9765.0573.09 100 ppm25.3557.7966.23 3.536.606.873.7312.6715.4746.67Cycocel 250 ppm24.5754.7162.34 3.937.007.134.1313.4016.1345.33Control26.3160.4668.02 2.475.405.602.6710.4012.9347.33CD at 5%0.561.020.65 0.200.300.250.200.650.631.82 Table 2: Effect of pre soaking and foliar spray of plant growth regulators on yield and yield attributes of coriander. TreatmentsUmbelsUmbelletsSeedsSeed yieldSeed yieldDays to plant -1  umbel -1 umbel -1  (g plant -1 )(q ha -1 ) maturity GA 3 50 ppm24.005.8730.937.2115.5886.33GA 3 75 ppm25.936.0733.008.0216.9985.00NAA 10 ppm22.075.5325.536.3013.4988.67NAA 25 ppm23.005.7327.206.8014.6887.67Cycocel 100 ppm26.606.0032.537.8316.6491.00Cycocel 250 ppm28.006.3334.739.0218.4690.00Control16.935.2723.475.3311.2992.33CD at 5%1.380.201.680.921.442.14 Table 3 : Effect of foliar spraying of plant growth regulators onquality characters of coriander. MoistureTotalTotalEssentialTreatment(%)carbohy-solubleoildrates proteinsContent(%)(%) (%) GA 3 50 ppm10.3420.0715.010.43GA 3 75 ppm9.1923.0916.120.42NAA 10 ppm13.0118.5114.110.38NAA 25 ppm11.8619.2714.900.39Cycocel 100 ppm12.2817.2013.510.35Cycocel 250 ppm11.0418.0513.780.36Control13.4814.0211.570.32CD at 5% Days to50%flowering Morphological characters such as plant height,number of primary branches/plant, number of secondarybranches/plant, days taken for 50% flowering and maturityshowed significant variation with different concentrationsof growth regulators (table 1). Among various treatmentsGA 3  at 75 ppm recorded the highest plant height at 30DAS (35.43 cm), 60 DAS (69.22 cm) and at harvest(78.09 cm). The increase in plant height has been thought  Effect of Growth Regulators on Growth, Seed Yield and Quality of Coriander1085 to be due to effect on increased cell elongation and rapidcell division in the growing portion leading to increasedlength of internodes. These results were in conformitywith the findings of Bairva et al . (2012) in fenugreek,Singh et al . (2012) in coriander and Rohamare et al .(2013) in cumin. Number of primary and secondarybranches per plant were maximum with the applicationof Cycocel 250 ppm at 30 DAS (3.93 and 4.13,respectively), 60 DAS (7.00 and 13.40, respectively) andat harvest (7.13 and 16.13, respectively). The increasein number of primary and secondary branches could bedue to suppression of apical dominance by the applicationof growth retardant Cycocel which diverts the polartransport of auxin towards the basal buds there by leadsto increased branching. The results were in conformationwith Bairva et al . (2012) in fenugreek, Singh et al . (2012)in coriander and Rohamare et al . (2013) in ajwain. Daysto 50% flowering and maturity decreased gradually withan increasing level of GA 3  of 50 ppm to 75 ppm, whichindicated GA 3  involvement in transition of vegetativeapices to floral apices. According to Lang (1965) GA 3 could substitute for the proper environmental conditionswhich initiate early flowering (40.33 days) and maturity(85.00 days). Similar findings were reported by Singh et al.  (2012) in coriander. Yield characters The yield and yield attributing characters, such asnumber of umbels/ plant, number of umbellets/umbel,number of seeds/umbel, seed yield/plant and seed yield/ hectare were also showed significant variation amongthe different concentrations of GA 3 , NAA and Cycocel(table 2). Application of Cycocel 250 ppm was found tobe the best for various yield attributing characters suchas number of umbels/ plant (28.00), number of umbellets/ umbel (6.33), number of seeds/umbel (34.73). Obviouslythe projected seed yield per plant and per hectare wasfound maximum with Cycocel 250 ppm (9.02 g and 18.46q,respectively). The increase in seed yield per hectare mightbe due to increase in yield attributes such as number of umbels per plant, number of umbellets per umbel, numberof seeds per umbel, seed yield per plant and increase ingrowth parameters like number of branches (primary andsecondary) per plant. The above results were inconformity with the findings of Menaria and Maliwal(2007) in fennel, Sarada et al . (2008), Kumar andSundareswaran (2011) in coriander and Shetty and Rana(2012) in ajwain. Quality characters Quality characters, such as moisture content, totalcarbohydrate, total soluble protein content and essentialoil content in seeds were also significantly influenced byvarious treatments of GA 3 , NAA and Cycocel (table 3).Low moisture content in seeds treated with GA 3  75 ppmtreatment might be due to the efficient translocation of photo assimilates from leaf and stem to seeds resulting inincrease in seed dry weight. Both carbohydrate and proteincontent were found maximum with GA 3  75 ppm, it mightbe due to the increase in leaf chlorophyll content leadingto increased photosynthesis and photosynthetic CO 2 fixation providing more carbohydrates and proteins formetabolism and for export to sink. The essential oil contentin seeds was recorded highest in GA 3  at 50 ppm andshowed a declining trend with increase in GA 3 concentration. The above results were in conformitywith the findings of Hameed et al.  (1994) in fenugreek and Panda et al . (2007) in coriander. From the results of the experiment, it can be concluded that higherconcentrations of both Cycocel 250 ppm and GA 3  75ppm were significantly influencing the growth parameters,seed yield and yield attributing characters. However fromthe quality point of view, GA 3  50 ppm was found to besuperior. References Bairva, M., S. S. Meena and R. S. Mehta (2012). Effect of bio-fertilizers and plant growth regulators on growth and yieldof fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum  L.).  International Journal of Seed Spices , 2(1)  : 28-33.Bharud, R. W., B. P. Deore and V. A. Patil (1988). Effects of growth substances on the growth and yield of Methi.  Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural University , 13  : 340-341.Kumar, V. A. and S. Sundareswaran (2011). Effect of foliarapplication of chemicals and growth regulator on growthand seed yield in coriander ( Coriandrum sativum  L.). Progressive Horticulture , 43(2)  : 193-195.Lang, A. (1965). Physiology of flower initiation. Plant Physiology ,   15(1)  : 1380- 1536.Menaria, B. L. and P. L. Maliwal (2007). Maximization of seedyield in transplanted fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare  Mill.).  Indian Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops ,   16(1)  : 46-49.Panse, V. G. and P. V. Sukhatme (1995). Statistical Methods forAgricultural Workers. Indian Council of AgriculturalResearch, New Delhi, 108.Rohamare, Y., T. D. Nikam and K. N. Dhumal (2013). Effect of foliar application of plant growth regulators on growth,yield and essential oil components of ajwain( Trachyspermum ammi  L.).  International Journal of Seed Spices , 3(2)  : 34-41.Sarada, C., K. Giridhar and T. Yellamanda Reddy (2008).   Effectof bio-regulators and their time of application on growth  1086Vannam Yugandhar et al. and yield of coriander   ( Coriandrum sativum ) .    Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops ,   17(2)  : 183-186.Shetty, A. A. and M. K. Rana (2012). Effect of Gibberellic acidon yield and seed quality of ajowain ( Trachyspermum ammi L.).  BIOINFOLET  , 9(2)  : 19-194.Singh, D., P. P. Singh, I. S. Naruka, S. S. Rathore and R. P. S.Shaktawat (2012). Effect of plant growth regulators ongrowth and yield of coriander.  Indian Journal of  Horticulture , 69(1)  : 91-93.
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