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Crim 2 Reviewer (Ortega)

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Crim 2 Reviewer (Ortega)
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  RR EVISEDEVISED  OO RTEGARTEGA  LL ECTUREECTURE  NN OTESOTES   ONON  CC RIMINALRIMINAL  LL AWAW   TITLE I. CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS Crimes against national security1.Treason (Art. 114);2.Conspiracy and proposal to commit treason (Art. 115);3.Misprision of treason (Art. 11); and4.!spionage (Art. 11 ).Crimes against t#e la$ of nations1.%nciting to $ar or gi&ing moti&es for reprisals (Art. 11');2.iolation of neutrality (Art. 11);3.Corresponding $it# #ostile country (Art. 12*);4.+lig#t to enemy,s country (Art. 121); and5.-iracy in general and mutiny on t#e #ig# seas (Art. 122). The crimes under this title can be prosecuted even if the criminal act or acts were committed outsidethe Philippine territorial jurisdiction. However, prosecution can proceed only if the offender is withinPhilippine territory or brought to the Philippines pursuant to an extradition treaty. This is one of theinstances where the Revised Penal Code may be given extraterritorial application under !rticle #$%thereof. &n the case of crimes against the law of nations, the offender can be prosecuted whenever he may be found because the crimes are regarded as committed against humanity in general.  !lmost all of these are crimes committed in times of war, except the following, which can becommitted in times of peace'#(%)spionage, under !rticle ((* + This is also covered by Commonwealth !ct o. -(- which punishes conspiracy to commit espionage. This may be committed both in times of war and intimes of peace.# %&nciting to ar or /iving 0otives for Reprisals, under !rticle ((1 + This can be committed even if the Philippines is not a participant. )xposing the 2ilipinos or their properties becausethe offender performed an unauthori3ed act, li4e those who recruit 2ilipinos to participate inthe gulf war. &f they involve themselves to the war, this crime is committed. Relevant in thecases of 2lor Contemplacion or !bner !fuang, the police officer who stepped on a5ingaporean flag. #6%7iolation of eutrality, under !rticle ((8 + The Philippines is not a party to a war but there is awar going on. This may be committed in the light of the 0iddle )ast war. 1  Article 114. Treaso. ! A #erso $%o& o$i' alle'iace to (t%e Uite) States or* t%eGo+er,et o- t%e %ili##ie Isla)s& ot /ei' a -orei'er& le+ies $ar a'aist t%e,or a)%eres to t%eir ee,ies& 'i+i' t%e, ai) or co,-ort $it%i t%e %ili##ieIsla)s or else$%ere& s%all /e #0is%e) / recl0sio te,#oral to )eat% a) s%all#a a -ie ot to ecee) 23&333 #esos.No #erso s%all /e co+icte) o- treaso 0less o t%e testi,o o- t$o $itesses at least tot%e sa,e o+ert act or o co-essio o- t%e acc0se) i o#e co0rt.c%aro/les +irt0alla$ li/rar Lie$ise& a alie& resi)i' i t%e %ili##ie Isla)s& $%o co,,its acts o- treaso as )e-ie)i #ara'ra#% 1 o- t%is Article s%all /e #0is%e) / #risio ,a or to )eat% a) s%all#a a -ie ot to ecee) 23&333 #esos. (As a,e)e) / E.O. No. 44& Ma 51& 1647*. !lements1.ffender is a +ilipino or resident alien;2.T#ere is a $ar in $#ic# t#e -#ilippines is in&ol&ed;3.ffender eit#er /a.le&ies $ar against t#e go&ernment; or 0.ad#eres to t#e enemies gi&ing t#em aid or comfort $it#in t#e -#ilippines or else$#ereeuirements of le&ying $ar 1.Actual assem0ling of men;2.To eecute a treasona0le design 0y force;3.%ntent is to deli&er t#e country in $#ole or in part to t#e enemy; and4.Colla0oration $it# foreign enemy or some foreign so&ereignT$o $ays of pro&ing treason1.Testimony of at least t$o $itnesses to t#e same o&ert act; or 2.Confession of accused in open court. Article 117. Cos#irac a) ro#osal to Co,,it Treaso. 8 T%e cos#irac or #ro#osal toco,,it t%e cri,e o- treaso s%all /e #0is%e) res#ecti+el & / #risio ,a or a) a -ie otecee)i' 13&333 #esos& a) #risio correccioal a) a -ie ot ecee)i' 7&333 #esos. !lements of conspiracy to commit treason1.T#ere is a $ar in $#ic# t#e -#ilippines is in&ol&ed;2.At least t$o persons come to an agreement to / a.le&y $ar against t#e go&ernment; or 0.ad#ere to t#e enemies gi&ing t#em aid or comfort;3.T#ey decide to commit it. 2  !lements of proposal to commit treason1.T#ere is a $ar in $#ic# t#e -#ilippines is in&ol&ed;2.At least one person decides to / a.le&y $ar against t#e go&ernment; or 0.ad#ere to t#e enemies gi&ing t#em aid or comfort;3.e proposes its eecution to some ot#er persons. Article 119. Mis#risio o- Treaso. 8 E+er #erso o$i' alle'iace to (t%e Uite) States* t%eGo+er,et o- t%e %ili##ie Isla)s& $it%o0t /ei' a -orei'er& a) %a+i' o$le)'e o- a cos#irac a'aist t%e,& coceals or )oes ot )isclose a) ,ae o$ t%e sa,e& as sooas #ossi/le to t%e 'o+eror or -iscal o- t%e #ro+ice& or t%e ,a or or -iscal o- t%e cit i $%ic%%e resi)es& as t%e case ,a /e& s%all /e #0is%e) as a accessor to t%e cri,e o- treaso.Ele,ets 1. ffender o$es allegiance to t#e go&ernment and not a foreigner; 2. e #as 6no$ledge of conspiracy to commit treason against t#e go&ernment; 3. e conceals or does not disclose and ma6e 6no$n t#e same as soon as possi0le to t#e go&ernor or fiscal of t#e pro&ince in $#ic# #e resides or t#e mayor or fiscal of t#e city in $#ic# #eresides. hile in treason, even aliens can commit said crime because of the amendment to the article, nosuch amendment was made in misprision of treason. 0isprision of treason is a crime that may becommitted only by citi3ens of the Philippines.The essence of the crime is that there are persons who conspire to commit treason and the offender 4new this and failed to ma4e the necessary report to the government within the earliest possible time.hat is re9uired is to report it as soon as possible. The criminal liability arises if the treasonousactivity was still at the conspiratorial stage. :ecause if the treason already erupted into an overt act,the implication is that the government is already aware of it. There is no need to report the same.This is a felony by omission although committed with dolo, not with culpa.The persons mentioned in !rticle ((- are not limited to mayor, fiscal or governor. !ny person inauthority having e9uivalent jurisdiction, li4e a provincial commander, will already negate criminal liability. hether the conspirators are parents or children, and the ones who learn the conspiracy is a parent or child, they are re9uired to report the same. The reason is that although blood is thic4er than water so to spea4, when it comes to security of the state, blood relationship is always subservient tonational security. !rticle ; does not apply here because the persons found liable for this crime arenot considered accessories< they are treated as principals.&n the (88* bar examination, a problem was given with respect to misprision of treason. The text of the provision simply refers to a conspiracy to overthrow the government. The examiner failed to notethat this crime can only be committed in times of war. The conspiracy adverted to must betreasonous in character. &n the problem given, it was rebellion. ! conspiracy to overthrow thegovernment is a crime of rebellion because there is no war. =nder the Revised Penal Code, there isno crime of misprision of rebellion. 3  Article 11:. Es#ioa'e. 8 T%e #ealt o- #risio correccioal s%all /e i-licte) 0#o a #erso $%o;1. Wit%o0t a0t%orit t%ere-or& eters a $ars%i#& -ort& or a+al or ,ilitar esta/lis%,et or reser+atio to o/tai a i-or,atio& #las& #%oto'ra#%s& or ot%er )ata o- a co-i)etialat0re relati+e to t%e )e-ese o- t%e %ili##ie Arc%i#ela'o< or 2. =ei' i #ossessio& / reaso o- t%e #0/lic o--ice %e %ol)s& o- t%e articles& )ata& or i-or,atio re-erre) to i t%e #rece)i' #ara'ra#%& )iscloses t%eir cotets to a re#resetati+eo- a -orei' atio.T%e #ealt et %i'%er i )e'ree s%all /e i,#ose) i- t%e o--e)er /e a #0/lic o--icer or e,#lo ee.  Acts punis#ed1.7y entering $it#out aut#ority t#erefore a $ars#ip fort or na&al or military esta0lis#ment or reser&ation to o0tain any information plans p#otograp# or ot#er data of a confidential naturerelati&e to t#e defense of t#e -#ilippines;!lements1.ffender enters any of t#e places mentioned;2.e #as no aut#ority t#erefore;3.is purpose is to o0tain information plans p#otograp#s or ot#er data of a confidentialnature relati&e to t#e defense of t#e -#ilippines.2.7y disclosing to t#e representati&e of a foreign nation t#e contents of t#e articles data or information referred to in paragrap# 1 of Article 11  $#ic# #e #ad in #is possession 0y reasonof t#e pu0lic office #e #olds.!lements1.ffender is a pu0lic officer;2.e #as in #is possession t#e articles data or information referred to in paragrap# 1 of  Article 11  0y reason of t#e pu0lic office #e #olds;3.e discloses t#eir contents to a representati&e of a foreign nation. Co,,o$ealt% Act No. 919 8 A Act to 0is% Es#ioa'e a) Ot%er O--eses a'aist NatioalSec0rit  Acts punis#ed1.8nla$fully o0taining or permitting to 0e o0tained information affecting national defense;2.8nla$ful disclosing of information affecting national defense;3.9isloyal acts or $ords in times of peace;4.9isloyal acts or $ords in times of $ar;5.Conspiracy to &iolate preceding sections; and.ar0oring or concealing &iolators of la$.   Section Two. — Provoking war and disloyalty in case of war 4
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