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  CURRICULUM GOALS AND OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to:1. Distinguish between goals and objectives2. Distinguish between aims of education and curriculum and curriculum goals andobjectives3. Distinguish between curriculum goals and objectives and instructional goals andobjectives4. Specify and write curriculum goals5. Specify and write curriculum objectivesHierarchy of outcomesFollowing the model for curriculum improvement suggested in Chapter 5, let’s see how wehave come. We have:   Analyzed needs of students in general in society   Analyzed needs of American society   Reviewed aoms of education and affirmed those with which we are in agreement   Written a philosophy of education   Initiated a needs assessment by surveying needs of students in the community and schooland by surveying needs of the community   Conducted a needs assessment and identified unmet needsAll of these steps are a prelude to the next phase. They provide a framework; they set the stage.They furnish data that are vital to making curricular decisions. The planning of the curriculum isnow about to begin.I chapter 6 you ancounteres the terms “aims of education”, “curriculum goals”, :curriculumobjectives”; :instructional goals”; and “instructional objectives” as used in this text. Wediscussed a hierarchy of purposes of education from the broadest to the narrowest. Let’s reviewthat hierarchy; it is essential both to this chapter on curriculu goals and objectives and to chapter 10 on instructional goals and objectives. We might chart this hierarchy as shows in figure 8-1.It sometimes seems that the educational literature is surfeited with discussions of goals andobjectives. In spite of these many commentaries, I have included three chapters in this text(Chapters 6, 8, and 10) on aims, goals, and objectives for the following reasons:1. Theyare essential components in a comprehensive model for curriculum improvement.2. These various terms for purpose are used loosely and interchangeably in some of theliterature, leading to possible confusion.3. Some of the recommendations in the literature on thewriting of goals and objectives arehelpful; other recommendations seem less helpful.  Aims,Goals,and Objectives Several problems can be found if we research the literature on aims, goals, and objectives.First, aims of education are often equated with goals, and in a lexical sense, of course, they arethe same. John W. Gardner in  Goals for Americans  was describing aims of education when hewrote: Our deepest convictions impel us to foster individual fulfillment. We wish each one to achieve the promise that isin him. We wish each one to be worthy of a free society, and capable of strengthening a free society. . . .Ultimately, education serves all of our purposes—liberty, justice, and all our other aims-- but the one it servesmost directly is equality of opportunity.[The] . . . tasks of producing certain specially needed kinds of educated talent . . . should not crowd out thegreat basic goals of our educational system: to foster individual fulfillment and to nurture the free, rational andresponsible men and women without whom our kind of society cannot endure. Our schools must prepare  all   young people, whatever their talents, for the serious business of being free men and women. 2 In this case the problem of equating aims of education with goals is minor because Gardner communicates to the reader that he is consistently discussing broad goals or aims. The problemarises when discussions of aims, curriculum goals and objectives, and instructional goals andobjectives are intermingled. There is little difficulty when a single meaning for a term is used in asingle context or when an author clearly defines how he or she uses a term. That, however, doesnot always happen.Second, the terms educational goals and educational objectives are used in the profession with varying meanings. Some use these terms in the same way other people speak of aims of education or educational aims. Some perceive educational goals as curriculum goals andeducational objectives as curriculum objectives. Some substitute educational goals for instructionalgoals and educational objectives for instructional objectives.Third, as we shall see in examples of school statements of goals and objectives, goals areequated with objectives, and the terms are used synonymously. However, if we believe what weread, there are two entities—one called goals and another, objectives—for numerous schoolshave prepared statements of both goals and objectives.Some writers, have used the ternis goals and objectives interchangeably. W. James Pophamand Eva L. Baker, for example, wrote: We have given considerable attention to the topic of instructional objectives because they represent one of the most important tools available to theteacher. . . . There is undoubtedly a positive relationship between a teacher's clarity of instructionalgoals and the quality of his teaching. 3 Robert E Mager in his popular work on instructionalobjectives commented:  An instructor . . . must then select procedures, content, and methods that . . . measure or evaluate thestudent's performance according to the objectives or goals srcinally selected. . . . Another important reason for stating objectives sharply relates to the evaluation of the degree to which the learner is able to perform in themanner desired. . . . Unless goals are clearly and firmly fixed in the minds of both parties, tests are at bestmisleading.' Two widely followed taxonomies of educational objectives bear the subtitle  The Classificationof Educational Goals. 5 In some of the literature goals  are  objectives and vice versa.Fourth, some curriculum specialists do not distinguish curriculum goals and objectives frominstructional goals and objectives, or they use these two sets of terms synonymously. If curriculum and instruction are two different entities—the position taken in this text—thencurriculum goals and objectives are different from instructional goals and objectives. Only if wechoose a curriculum-instruction model in which the two are mirror images can curriculum goalsand objectives be identical to instructional goals and objectives. This text, however, presents theview that the two are separate but related entities.These observations are not meant to criticize the positions, definitions, or approaches of other curriculum specialists nor to hold that the definitions given in this text are the right or only ones.As Decker F. Walker aptly stated in an enlightened discussion of writings on curriculum: Curriculum is clearly an iffy subject. It belongs to Aristotle's region of the many and variable wherecertain knowledge is not possible, only opinion—multiple and various, more or less considered, more or less ade-quate, but never clearly true or false. 6 Mary M. McCaslin spoke in a similar vein when she said:We all live in glass houses. None of us can afford glib dismissal of alternative conceptions any more than we canafford to be noncritical or nonreflective about our own work.? My remarks about the differences in use of curriculum terms convey, as mentioned in Chapter 1,that the language of curriculum is somewhat imprecise and can lead to confusion. Curriculumspecialists, unfortunately, do not agree among themselves on terminology. As a result, the practitioner who seeks to carry out curriculum development following principles established by theexperts must first understand these terms and the contexts within which they appear.In this text I have made distinctions between curriculum goals and objectives and instructionalgoals and objectives in order to help practitioners facilitate the natural flow of curriculumdevelopment from general aims of education to precise instructional objectives. Specifyingcurriculum goals and objectives, then, is viewed as an intermediate planning step between these two poles. I will first define the terms curriculum goals and objectives, present some examples, andthen develop some guidelines for writing them.  DEFININGGOALSANDOBJECTIVESCURRICULUMGOALS A  curriculum goal is  a purpose or end stated in general terms without criteria of achievement.Curriculum planners wish students to accomplish it as a result of exposure to segments or all of a program of a particular school or school system. For example, the following statement meetsthis definition of a curriculum goal: Students will demonstrate responsible behavior as citizensof our school, community, state, nation, and world. We have already seen examples of curriculum goals in Chapter 3. The Seven CardinalPrinciples—health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home membership, vocation,citizenship, worthy use of leisure, and ethical character—are examples of curriculum goals, albeitin a form of shorthand.  8 The Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education couldhave expanded these principles into forms like the following: '   The school will promote the physical and mental health of the students.   Students will achieve a command of the fundamental processes.   A goal of the school is to foster worthy home membership.The Ten Imperative Needs of Youth, listed by the Educational Policies Commission, is a set of curriculum goals that, as noted earlier, included such statements as these: All youth needtodevelop salable skills.All youth need to develop and maintain good health, physical fitness, and mental health.All youth need to grow in their ability to think rationally, to express their thoughts clearly, and toread and listen with understanding .The Educational Policies Commission pointed to four purposes or aims of education in Americandemocracy. It identified these aims as self-realization, human relationships, economic efficiency,and civic responsibility.These purposes might be modified by a particular school or schoolsystem and turned into curricular goals, stated in a variety of ways, as follows: o  The school's program provides experiences leading to self-realization. o  Our school seeks to promote human relationships. o  A goal of the school is development of skills of learners that will lead to their country'sand their own economic efficiency. o  Students will develop a sense of civic responsibility.Many variations are used for exptessing these four purposes. This chapter will later present a preferred form for writing goals and objectives. For now, these four goals are shown only asexamples of substance, not of form.Aims of education can become curriculum goals when applied to a particularichoot or schoolsystem. , The distinction drawn between aims of education and curriculum goals is one of generality (or looking at it from the other end of the telescope, specificity). To transmit the
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