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DC Comics vs Powers

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  465 F.Supp. 843 (1978)D C COMICS, INC., Plaintif,v. ! # PO$%&S, Mi'a!l a *+, t! Dail# Plan!t, In'., an- Futu !D!v!l+p!nt M! 'an-i/in0, In'., D!!n-ant/. No. 78 Civ. 4597 (KTD). 2nit!- Stat!/ Di/t i't C+u t, S. D. N! + *. December 7, 1978.844*844 845*845 Weiss, David, Fruss  !e rma#, Ne$ %or& Ci', Co$a#, !iebo$i'  !a'ma#, Ne$ %or& Ci', or +ai#'i- /ic ae Davis, Ne$ %or& Ci', Caro F . 0im&i#, /i'c e a# Fra#&, Ne$ %or& Ci', o cou#se.David 0. Fi'+a'ric&, /ic ae F . 0c $ar', Ne$ %or& Ci', or dee#da#'s  2err 3o$ers a#d T e Dai 3a#e', #c. OPINION ND O&D%& K6N T/0 DFF%, Dis'ric' 2ud:e; T is is a 'rademar& ac'io# i#vovi#: use o ' e #ame Dai 3a#e' bo' as ' e 'i'e o a #e$s +ubica'io# a#d i# co##ec'io# $i' a mriad o co#sumer+roduc's. 3ai#'i-, D C Comics, #c., c ar:es ' a' ' e co#'i#ued use o ' e #ame Dai 3a#e' b dee#da#'s, ' e Dai 3a#e', #c. a#d i's 3reside#',  2err 3o$ers, <1=  is vioa'ive o > 4?(a) o ' e !a# am c', 15 .0.C. > 11@5(a), < erei#a'er A' e c'A= a#d co#s'i'u'es u#air com+e'i'io# resu'i#:i# diu'io# o +ai#'i-Bs commo# a$ 'rademar& u#der ' e a$ o Ne$ %or&.  2urisdic'io# is ou#ded u+o# @8 .0.C. > 1??8(a), (b) a#d u+o# ' e +ri#ci+es o +e#de#' urisdic'io#.# 2u#e o 19?8, +ai#'i-Bs +redecessors crea'ed ' e c'io#a c arac'er caed 0u+erma# E' e Ama# o s'ee $ o, $i' +o$ers a#d abii'ies beo#d' ose o mor'a me#, : 's a #ever e#di#: ba''e or 'ru' , us'ice a#d ' e merica# $a.A T e Dai 3a#e' serves a dua u#c'io# i# rea'io# 'o ' e 0u+erma# c arac'er. 3rimari, i' is ' e #ame o ' e c'i'ious /e'ro+ois #e$s+a+er $ ic em+os 0u+erma#Bs a'er e:o, 'o:e' er $i' ' e o' er ce#'ra c arac'ers i# ' e 0u+erma# s'or. T e Dai 3a#e' is aso ' e 'i'e o a +romo'io#a #e$s coum# a++eari#: rom 'ime'o'ime $i' i# 0u+erma# comic boo&s.Dee#da#'s are ' e movi#: orces be i#d a# u#der:rou#d #e$s +ubica'io# <@=  caed ' e Dai 3a#e'. T e Dai 3a#e' a++eared be'$ee# ' e ears 19G9 ' rou: 197?. 0i#ce i's demise i# 197?, ' e Dai 3a#e' adorma#' u#'i rece#' $ e# dee#da#'s demo#s'ra'ed a :rea' i#'eres' i# i's resusci'a'io#.+o# comme#ceme#' o ' e i#s'a#' ac'io#, dee#da#'s moved or a +reimi#ar i#u#c'io# 'o +recude +ai#'i- rom a# use o ' e #ame Dai 3a#e' i#cudi#: ' e adver'iseme#', +romo'io#, dis'ribu'io# or 84G*84G saeo a# +roduc's i# co##ec'io# $i' ' e mu'imiio# doar ci#ema +roduc'io# o A0u+erma#A, sc edued 'o be reeased i# us' a e$ $ee&s b +ai#'i-Bs +are#', War#er Commu#ica'io#s. <?=  3ai#'i- as cross moved or i#u#c'ive reie see&i#: 'o +recude dee#da#'s rom a# use o ' e Dai 3a#e'. eari#: $as ed beore me o# November @1s' a#d @7' . T e oo$i#:, based u+o# ' e 'es'imo# eici'ed a#d ' e evide#ce received a' ' e eari#: 'o:e' er $i' ' e memora#da a#d aHdavi's submi''ed b ' e +ar'ies, co#s'i'u'e m #di#:s o ac' a#d co#cusio#s o a$.Io' +ai#'i- a#d dee#da#'s caim ' a' as a resu' o a +rior a++ro+ria'io# a#d use o ' e #ame Dai 3a#e', ' e eac +ossess eJcusive ri: 's 'o i's use. W a' is rea a' issue, o$ever, is $ e' er ei' er +ar' 'o ' is ac'io# is e#'i'ed 'o eJcusive eJ+oi'a'io# o ' e #ame Dai 3a#e' based o# ' e eJ+ec'ed $ave o +ubic i#'eres' i# ' e 0u+erma# c arac'er cacua'ed 'o resu' rom ' e reease o ' e 0u+erma# movie.' is $e se''ed ' a' a +reimi#ar i#u#c'io# $i issue o# u+o# a cear s o$i#: b ' e mova#' ' a' i' $i su-er irre+arabe arm abse#' i's issua#ce a#d demo#s'ra'es ei' er (i) a +robabii' o success o# ' e meri's,or (ii) suHcie#' serious ues'io# :oi#: 'o ' e meri's 'o ma&e ' em a air :rou#d or i'i:a'io# a#d a baa#ce o ards i+s 'i++i#: decided 'o$ard ' e mova#'. See, e. g., Triebwasser & Katz v. American Telephone & Telegraph Co.,  5?5 F  .@d 1?5G (@d Cir. 197G). Merits of the Case ' is u#dis+u'ed ' a' #ei' er +ai#'i- #or dee#da#'s +rese#' od a re:is'ered 'rademar& i# ' e Dai 3a#e' a#d, ' ereore, a# ri: 's 'o ' e eJcusive use ' ereo are 'o be de'ermi#ed soe u#der ' e commo# a$ o 'rademar&s.  D. M. & Antique mport Corp. v. !o al Sa#e Corp.,  ?11 F . Supp .1@G1, 1@71 (0.D.N.%.197L). commo# a$ 'rademar&, +araei#: i's s'a'u'or cou#'er+ar', i#cudes a# $ord, #ame or smbo ado+'ed a#d used b a ma#uac'urer or merc a#' 'o ide#'i is :oods a#d 'o dis'i#:uis ' em rom ' ose ma#uac'ured or sod b o' ers. ? Cama##, #air Com+e'i'io#  Trademar&s a#d /o#o+oies > G5 a' 1@ (?d ed. 19G9). See also Clairol, nc. v. $illette Co.,  @7L F  . Supp  . ?71, ?7G (.D.N.%.19G7),  a%'  ?89 F  .@d @G4 (@dCir. 19G8).   T e u#c'io# o a 'rademar& is 'o ide#'i ' e source o a +roduc'. #deed, i' as bee# ed ' a';. . . +ro'ec'io# o 'rademar&s is ' e a$Bs reco:#i'io# o ' e +sc oo:ica u#c'io# o smbos.  i' is 'rue ' a' $e ive b smbos, i' is #o ess 'rue ' a' $e +urc ase :oods b ' em. Mishawa(a !ubber & )oolen M*g. Co. v. S. S. Kresge Co.,  ?1G .0. @L?, @L5, G@ 0.C'. 1L@@, 1L@4, 8G !.d. 1?81 (194@).# order 'o caim o$#ers i+ o a mar&, a +ar' mus' demo#s'ra'e ' a' is use o ' e mar& as bee# o suc a uai' a#d or suc a dura'io# ' a' i' as come 'o ide#'i :oods beari#: i' as ori:i#a'i#: rom ' a' +ar'. # s or', ' e mar& mus' ave deveo+ed a seco#dar mea#i#:E' e +rimar si:#ica#ce o ' e mar& i# ' e a#ds o ' e co#sumi#: +ubic is #o' 'o ide#'i ' e +roduc', bu' ra' er, 'o ide#'i i's +roducer.# order 'o succeed i# i's sui' caimi#: i#ri#:eme#', +ai#'i- mus' es'abis ' ree esse#'ia eeme#'s; +ai#'i- is ' e o$#er o ' e mar& ' e mar& i#dica'es ' e source o ' e :oods a#d, dee#da#'Bs use o ' e mar& is i&e 'o crea'e co#usio# i# ' e mi#ds o ' e co#sumi#: +ubic as 'o ' e source o ' e :oods. 0ee :e#era ? Cama##, #air Com+e'i'io#  Trademar&s a#d /o#o+oies >> G5GG (?d ed. 19G9).!i&e$ise, dee#da#'s, 'o succeed i# ' eir caim o eJcusive o$#ers i+ o ' e Dai 3a#e', mus' +rove ' ese same eeme#'s. T e 0u+erma# c arac'er as, si#ce i's crea'io# i# 19?8, bee# ea'ured i# comic boo&s, comic s'ri+s a#d o# radio a#d 'eevisio#. 847*847 T e Dai 3a#e' rs' a++eared i# ' e 0u+erma# s'or i# 194L. 0i#ce ' e#, ' e Dai 3a#e' as +aed a &e roe, #o' o# i# ' e 0u+erma# s'or, bu' aso i# ' e deveo+me#' o ' e 0u+erma# c arac'er. # addi'io#, +ai#'i- as :o#e 'o :rea' e-or' a#d eJ+e#se ' rou: ou' ' e o#: is'or o 0u+erma# 'o u'iie ' e 0u+erma# c arac'er i# co##ec'io# $i' a mriad o +roduc's bor# o ' e 0u+erma# s'or. 0ee Dee#da#'sB J ibi' . #deed, 'o ' is e#d +ai#'i- em+oed ' e !ice#si#: Cor+ora'io# o merica 'o ac' as i's a:e#' i# ' e ice#si#: o ' e 0u+erma# c arac'er 'o +erso#s $is i#: 'o use i' i# co##ec'io# $i' a :ive# +roduc'. T ese +roduc's ave i#cuded sc oo su++ies, 'os, cos'umes, :ames a#d co' es.' ' e eari#: beore me, 2ose+ Mra#', ' e 3reside#' o ' e !ice#si#: Cor+ora'io# o merica, eJ+ai#ed ' e ice#si#: +rocedures or ' e D C Comics, #c. a#d i# +ar'icuar ' e 0u+erma# c arac'ers. e 'es'ied ' a' is cor+ora'io#, a' ' e be es' o D C Comics, #c., ice#ses ' e 0u+erma# s'or as a +ac&a:e. T us, ' e '+ica ice#si#: a:reeme#' $oud +ermi' use#o' o# o 0u+erma#, bu' o a ' e 0u+erma# c arac'ers. /r. Mra#' co#cuded ' a' $ ie ' e Dai 3a#e' $as #ever si#:ed ou' i# a# ice#si#: a:reeme#', e beieved i' 'o be +ar' a#d +arce o ' e '+ica ice#si#: a:reeme#'. #deed, i' $as cear es'abis ed ' a' ' e Dai 3a#e' as bee# +romi#e#' ea'ured o# ma# +roduc's ema#a'i#: rom ' ese ice#si#: a:reeme#'s. <4=   See, e. g.,  3ai#'i-Bs J ibi' ? Dee#da#'sB J ibi' .# co#'ras', dee#da#'sB rea'io#s i+ $i' ' e 'erm Dai 3a#e' as bee# bo' brie a#d, a' bes', s+oradic. Dee#da#'sB rs' +ubis ed ' eir #e$s+a+er i# 19G9 i# /iami, Forida a#d caed i' AT e /iami Free 3ress.A  T erea'er, ' e #ame $e#' ' rou: a series o c a#:es rom AT e /iami Free 3ress a#d T e Dai 3a#e'A, 'o AT e Dai 3a#e' a#d T e /iami Free 3ressA a#d #a 'o AT e Dai 3a#e'.A # 197L, 3o$ers re:is'ered ' e #ame Dai 3a#e' as ' e 'rademar& or ' e +a+er. ' $as aso duri#: ' is +eriod ' a' 3o$ers caused ' e i#cor+ora'io# o ' e Dai 3a#e', #c. T ere $as 'es'imo# rom ' e dee#da#' 3o$ers ' a' ' e Dai 3a#e' $as dis'ribu'ed a' ' e Woods'oc& /usic Fes'iva i# Woods'oc&, Ne$ %or& a#d a' ' e 'a#'a 3o+ Fes'iva i# Meor:ia.  am $ii#: 'o beieve ' a' 'o be 'rue. /uc o 3o$erBs o' er 'es'imo#, o$ever, s'rai#s credibii'.Des+i'e dee#da#'sB dream o crea'i#: a +a+er $i' #a'io#a a++ea, ' e Dai 3a#e' remai#ed ' rou: ou' i's brie is'or esse#'ia a oca a-air a#d, as suc , $as +ubis ed be'$ee# 19G9 ' rou: 197? o# a# irre:uar basis. 3o$ers aso 'es'ied ' a' rom i's i#ce+'io#, ' e Dai 3a#e' $as +a:ued $i' #a#cia +robems. Fi#a, i# 197?, i's #a#cia $oes becameover$ emi#: a#d ' e +a+er oded. T erea'er, 3o$ers e' Forida a#d be:a# $or& o# a #e$ u#der:rou#d +ubica'io# caed A0u+ers'ar.A ' eas' '$o issues o A0u+ers'arA $ere +ubis ed a' ' is 'ime. ' a++ears ' a' ' e maori' o dee#da#'sB 'ime a#d e-or's $ere devo'ed 'o ' e +romo'io# o ' is #e$ +ubica'io#. Co#seue#', dee#da#'s +ermi''ed ' eir 'rademar& re:is'ra'io# o Dai 3a#e' 'o a+se a#d i' $as subseue#' ca#ceed b ' e Hce o 3a'e#' a#d Trademar& Oe:is'ra'io# i# 197G.# i: ' o ' e ore:oi#:, i' is a++are#' ' a' o# +ai#'i- as demo#s'ra'ed a# associa'io# o suc dura'io# a#d co#sis'e#c $i' ' e Dai 3a#e' suHcie#' 'o es'abis a commo# a$ 'rademar& ' erei#. T e 'o'ai' o evide#ce demo#s'ra'es ' a' ' e Dai 3a#e' as over ' e ears become i#eJ'ricab $ove# i#'o ' e abric o ' e 0u+erma# s'or.848*848 Dee#da#'s, o# ' e o' er a#d, ave o-ered ver i''e 'o evide#ce ei' er a subs'a#'ia or :e#ui#e i#'eres' i# ' e Dai 3a#e'. /ore im+or'a#', o$ever, u+o# ' e demise o ' e Dai 3a#e' i# 197?,  #d ' a' dee#da#'s e#:a:ed i# a course o co#duc' evide#ci#: a# i#'e#' 'o aba#do# a# i#'eres's ' e ma ave acuired ' erei#. T e ac' ' a' dee#da#'s +ermi''ed ' eir re:is'ra'io# o ' e Dai 3a#e' 'o a+se a#d ' erea'er be:a# 'o +ubis a#o' er +a+er o ' e same #a'ure as ' e Dai 3a#e' u#der ' e #ame A0u+ers'arA is dis+osi'ive o ' is i#'e#' a#d su++or'sa #di#: o aba#do#me#'.   Tur#i#: i# +ar'icuar 'o +ai#'i-Bs caim u#der sec'io# 4?(a) o ' e !a# am c', 15 .0.C. > 11@5(a), i' is #o' a +rereuisi'e or remedia ac'io# ' ereu#der ' a' ' e mar& i# issue be re:is'ered. !are +arth, nc. v. oorelbe(e,  4L1 F  . Supp  . @G, ?7 (0.D. N.%.1975)  Mortellito v. -ina o* Cali*ornia, nc.,  ??5 F  . Supp  . 1@88, 1@94 (0.D.N.%.197@). Co#seue#', u#der ' is sec'io#, a commo# a$ 'rademar& is e#'i'ed 'o ' e same +ro'ec'io# as i's s'a'u'or cou#'er+ar'.  +ai#'i-, ' ereore, is e#'i'ed 'o remedia ac'io# u#der ' is sec'io# i ' e dee#da#' as aHJed +ai#'i-Bs mar& 'o is :oods i# suc a as io# as 'o misre+rese#' 'o ' e +ubic ' e source o ' e :oods.' ou: i' is im+era'ive i# ' e i#s'a#' ac'io# or +ai#'i- 'o demo#s'ra'e ' a' dee#da#'sB use o ' e Dai 3a#e' is i&e 'o ei' er co#use or deceive +urc asers as 'o ' e source o i'ems beari#: ' e mar&, Mortellito v. -ina o* Cali*ornia, nc., supra,  ??5 F  . Supp  . a' 1@95, iabii' $i a''ac eve# ' ou: +ai#'i- is #o' i# direc' com+e'i'io# $i' ' e dee#da#'s. <5=   '.  T ere is #o ma' ema'ica ormua b $ ic 'o measure ' e i&ei ood o co#usio# or dece+'io# as co#'em+a'ed u#der sec'io# 4? o ' e c'. ' is se''ed, o$ever, ' a' +roo o ac'ua co#usio# is :e#era #o' reuired $ ere ' e +ar' see&s o# +reimi#ar eui'abe reie. Clairol, nc. v. $illette Co.,  @7L F  . Supp  . ?71, ?79 (.D.N.%.19G7) ? Cama##, #air Com+e'i'io# Trademar&s a#d /o#o+oies > 8L.G a' 55758, 5G1G@ (?d ed. 19G9). /oreover, i' as bee# ed ' a' $ ere ' e evide#ce demo#s'ra'es A' a' a#o' erBs #ame $as ado+'ed deibera'e $i' a vie$ 'o ob'ai# some adva#'a:e rom ' e :ood $i, :ood #ame, a#d :ood 'rade $ ic a#o' er as bui'u+, ' e# ' e i#ere#ce o <' e= i&ei ood o co#usio# is readi dra$#, or ' e ver ac' o ' e ado+'er as i#dica'ed ' a' e eJ+ec's co#usio# a#d resu'a#' +ro'.A leischmann Distilling Corp. v. Maier /rewing Co.,  ?14 F  .@d 149, 158 (9' Cir.),  cert. 'enie',  ?74 .0. 8?L, 8? 0.C'. 187L, 1L !.d.@d 1L5? (19G?) (ci'a'io#s omi''ed). #deed, $ ere suc a# i#'e#' 'o deceive ' e +ubic as bee# demo#s'ra'ed, i' :ives rise 'o a +resum+'io# ' a' dece+'io# a#d co#usio# i# ac' resu'ed. Mortellito v. -ina o* Cali*ornia, nc., supra, ??5 F  . Supp  . a' 1@95.++i#: ' ese +ri#ci+es 'o ' e case a' bar, i' is evide#' ' a' +ai#'i- as demo#s'ra'ed a +robabii' o success o# ' e meri's suHcie#' 'o $arra#' ' e eui'abe reie reues'ed.s +revious #o'ed, +ai#'i- as, ' rou: ' e !ice#si#: Cor+ora'io# o merica, e#:a:ed i# eJ'e#sive ice#si#: o ' e 0u+erma# c arac'er as $eas ' e 0u+erma# s'or coveri#: a mriad o +roduc's. 0ee Dee#da#'sB J ibi' . From ' e #umerous eJ ibi's +rese#'ed a#d ' e 'es'imo# eici'ed, i' is cear ' a' ' e Dai 3a#e' as +aed a &e roe i# ma# o ' ese ice#si#: a:reeme#'s. Des+i'e ' e ac' ' a' ' e Dai 3a#e' as #ever i#dividua bee# ' e subec' o o#e o ' ese a:reeme#'s, i' as bee#+romi#e#' dis+aed o# ma# o ' e +roduc's ema#a'i#: rom ' ese a:reeme#'s. See, e. g.,  3ai#'i-Bs J ibi' ?. Fur' ermore, ' e Dai 3a#e' as become so cose associa'ed $i' ' e +rese#'a'io# o ' e 0u+erma# s'or ' a' a# use ' ereo b dee#da#'s $oud crea'e a subs'a#'ia i&ei ood o co#usio# 849*849 a' ' e co#sumer eve. 0ee J ibi's  a#d I 'o ' e Modma# Hdavi'. <G= /oreover, i# ' e case a' bar,  #d subs'a#'ia evide#ce i#dica'i#: ' a' ' e ado+'io# b dee#da#'s o ' e #ame Dai 3a#e' i# 19G9 $as mere a# a''em+' 'o cas i# o# ' e 0u+erma# s'or a#d i's #o'orie'. 3o$ers admi''ed ' a' e $as a$are o ' e rea'io#s i+ be'$ee# ' e Dai 3a#e' a#d ' e 0u+erma# s'or $ e# e rs' decided 'o use ' e #ame. 3o$ersB Hdavi' a' 11?. ' $as aso es'abis ed ' a' ' ere $ere, ' rou: ou' ' e brie is'or o 3o$ersB Dai 3a#e', #umerous reere#ces i# ' e +a+er #o' o# 'o ' e 0u+erma# c arac'er, bu' aso 'o ' e 0u+erma# s'or, or eJam+e;(i)  ead ar'ice e#'i'ed A0u+erma# smo&es su+er do+eA(ii)  +romo'io#a cam+ai:# 'o e#coura:e #e$ subscri+'io#s em+oi#: ' e+ rase A2oi# ' e 3a#e' rm i# /e'ro+oisA <7= (iii) se o ' e + rase AWa'c do: o /e'ro+oisA as i's so:a#(iv) Numerous dra$i#:s o ' e 0u+erma# c arac'er(v) se o a mas' ead $ ic $as a# eJac' re+ica o ' e Dai 3a#e' i#si:#ia a++eari#: i# #umerous 0u+erma# comic boo&s. (Com+are 3ai#'i-Bs J ibi' G C, , a#d ! $i' Dee#da#'sB J ibi'  (issues da'ed c'ober ?, 197L, 2u @L, 197L a#d 2u G, 197L)). T us, i' is ui'e a++are#' ' a' dee#da#'s, bo' i# ado+'i#: ' e Dai 3a#e'as ' e 'i'e o ' eir #e$s+a+er a#d i# i's +ubica'io#, i#'e#ded 'o a' eas' co#use, i #o' 'o deceive ' e +ubic as 'o ' e ori:i# o ' e +ubica'io#.Dee#da#'s made muc o +ai#'i-Bs aiure 'o dii:e#' +oice i's mar& duri#: ' e +eriod dee#da#'s $ere +ubis i#: a#d dis'ribu'i#: ' eir versio#o ' e Dai 3a#e'. T e +remise ' eir ar:ume#', a' eas' i# +ar', o# ' e ac' ' a' duri#: i's brie is'or, ' e Dai 3a#e' ra# over 5Lu +a:e adver'iseme#'s or +ai#'i-Bs cor+ora'e +are#' War#er Commu#ica'io#s. Dee#da#'s co#cude ' a' ' is +u' +ai#'i- o# #o'ice o ' eir use o ' e Dai 3a#e' a#d u#der ' e doc'ri#e o ac es, +ai#'i- is +recuded rom ' e eui'abe reie sou: ' i# ' is ac'io#.  disa:ree.ve# assumi#:, arguen'o,  ' a' ' e &#o$ed:e o +erso#s a' War#er Commu#ica'io#s coud be im+u'ed 'o ' e +ai#'i-  <8=  a#d es'abis ' e #ecessar eeme#'s or ac es, i' ca##o' be asser'ed b ' e dee#da#'s erei#. #deed, as s'a'ed above, ' ere is subs'a#'ia evide#ce o# ' e recordbeore me 'e#di#: 'o +rove ' a' dee#da#'sB use o ' e Dai 3a#e' $as, ab initio,  +ar' o a sc eme 'o 'rade o# ' e :ood $i a#d busi#ess re+u'a'io# ' a' +ai#'i- (a#d i's +redecessor) ad bui' arou#d ' e 0u+erma# s'or. # s or', dee#da#'s ave u#cea# a#ds a#d ave ad  suc rom ' eir rs' use o ' e #ame Dai 3a#e'. T us, u#der ' e se''ed +ri#ci+es o eui' dee#da#'s ma #o' +ros+er rom ' eir o$# $ro#:doi#: a#d are +recuded rom asser'i#: ' e dee#se o ac es./oreover, $ ie +ai#'i- ma ave bee# some$ a' ess ' a# dii:e#' i# +oici#: i's 85L*85L mar&, i# i: ' o ' e oca a++ea a#d imi'ed dis'ribu'io# (:eo:ra+ ic a#d #umeric) o dee#da#'sB +ubica'io#,  am #o' co#vi#ced ' a' ' eir ac& o dii:e#ce $as so :rea' as 'o $arra#' oss o ' eir 'rademar&.# i: ' o ' e ore:oi#:, ' e dee#da#'sB co#'i#ued use o ' e Dai 3a#e' is i&e 'o cause irre+arabe i#ur 'o +ai#'i-Bs busi#ess re+u'a'io#, :ood $i a#d 'o i's commo# a$ 'rademar&.ccordi#:, dee#da#'sB mo'io# or +reimi#ar reie is de#ied a#d +ai#'i-Bs mo'io# or a +reimi#ar i#u#c'io# is :ra#'ed.0o ordered.

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Jul 23, 2017
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