Design and Techno-economical Optimization for Hybrid PV-wind System Under Various Meteorological Conditions

Available online at APPLIED ENERGY Applied Energy 85 (2008) 968–987 Design and techno-economical optimization for hybrid PV/wind system under various meteorological conditions S. Diaf a,*, G. Notton a, M. Belhamel b, M. Haddadi c, A. Louche a a Universite´ de Corse CNRS – UMR 6134, Centre Scientifique de Vignola, Route des Sanguinaires, F-20000 Ajaccio, France b Centre de De´veloppement des Energies Renouvelables, B.P. 62 16340 Bouzareah,
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  Design and techno-economical optimization for hybridPV/wind system under various meteorological conditions S. Diaf  a,* , G. Notton a , M. Belhamel b , M. Haddadi c , A. Louche a a Universite´  de Corse CNRS – UMR 6134, Centre Scientifique de Vignola, Route des Sanguinaires, F-20000 Ajaccio, France b Centre de De´ veloppement des Energies Renouvelables, B.P. 62 16340 Bouzareah, Algiers, Algeria c Ecole Polytechnique d’El harrach, Algiers, Algeria Received 4 December 2007; received in revised form 16 February 2008; accepted 17 February 2008Available online 2 April 2008 Abstract The optimal design of the renewable energy system can significantly improve the economical and technical performanceof power supply. In this paper, the technical-economic optimization study of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind system(HPWS) in Corsica Island is presented.Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimensions of a stand-alone HPWS thatguarantee the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer with the lowest levelised cost of energy (LCE). A secondaryaim is to compare the performance and the optimal sizing of two system configurations. Finally, to study the impact of therenewable energy potential quality on the system size, the optimum dimensions of system are defined for five sites in Cor-sica Island. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed, able to predict the optimum system configuration on thebasis of LCE. Accordingly, an integrated energy balance analysis is carried out for the whole time period investigated.The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study, yieldinglower LCE. Thus, it provides higher system performance than PV or wind systems alone. The choice of the system con-figuration type affects the state of charge variation profile, especially at low wind potential sites, while the system size andthe LCE are significantly influenced. It is shown that the LCE depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality.At high wind potential site, more than 40% of the total production energy is provided by the wind generator, while at lowwind potential sites, less than 20% of total production energy is generated by the wind generator.   2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords:  Hybrid system; Optimum system sizing; Energy balance; Cost analysis 1. Introduction The absence of an electrical network in remote regions and the prohibitively high connection cost-due tolarge distances and irregular topography lead often the various organizations to explore alternative solutions. 0306-2619/$ - see front matter    2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.02.012 * Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 495524152; fax: +33 495524141. E-mail addresses: (S. Diaf), (G. Notton), (M. Belhamel), (M. Haddadi), (A. Louche).  Available online at Applied Energy 85 (2008) 968–987 APPLIED ENERGY  Stand-alone hybrid systems have turned into one of the most promising ways to handle the electrificationrequirements of these regions.Corsica is the smallest and the most mountainous of the three big occidental Mediterranean islands with asurface of 8680 km 2 .Today, the Corsica total installed power capacity of about 600 MW is not enough to meet the total powerrequirements. Increased rate of electric energy consumption and numerous existing isolated consumers consti-tute one of the largest problems being encountered by the electric company in Corsica Island. In order to copewith the increasing electric consumption trends, it is desirable to explore every possible avenue for generatingmore energy. The choice of diesel power generation has been considered for a long time as the best solution forthe electrification of remote and isolated areas.Nowadays, due to international policy and concerns on environmental issues (Kyoto Protocol, reduction of CO 2  emissions, European Directive on renewable energy sources, etc.), generation of electrical power bymeans of renewable energy sources has gained an increased interest and becomes one of the most interestingand environmental friendly technological solutions.Corsica Island is blessed with good level of solar irradiation and enough important wind potential. Thissituation makes that a considerable amount of Corsica energy requirements may be tapped from hybrid com-bination of wind and solar energy.In this context, the present study investigates the possibility of using stand-alone renewable power system tosatisfy the energy load requirements. Therefore, our primary objective is to determine the optimum dimen-sions of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind system that guarantees the energy autonomy of a typical remote con-sumer. Our secondary aim is to compare the performance and the optimal sizing of different systemconfigurations on various sites. In this study, two system configurations are analysed in order to show theimpact of the system configuration type on the system performances. The first configuration corresponds tothe hybrid PV/wind system in which both wind and PV generators present the primary source of energy.In the second one, the wind generator is taken as the primary source of energy and the PV generator asthe secondary source of energy.To analyse the impact of the renewable energy potential quality on the system size, the optimum dimen-sions of system are defined for five sites located in Corsica Island (Table 1). This paper is organized as follows:   Description of the hybrid system configurations;   Estimation of the renewable energy potential;   Hybrid system modelling;   Sizing and economic optimization methodology;   Simulations results. 2. Description of the hybrid PV/wind system configurations Taking advantage of the good solar and wind potential of Corsica Island, a stand-alone hybrid PV/windsystem is proposed in order to meet the electricity demand of remote consumers. The proposed hybrid PV/wind system (Fig. 1) consists of a PV generator, a wind generator, a battery storage system, a DC/DC con-verter, an AC/DC converter and DC/AC inverter able to meet the consumption peak load demand. Table 1Geographical data for the selected stationsSite Longitude Latitude Altitude (m)Ajaccio 8  44 0 27 00 E 41  55 0 29 00 N 4Calvi 8  45 0 38 00 E 42  34 0 00 00 N 57Ersa 9  23 0 04 00 E 42  58 0 27 00 N 104Figari 9  08 0 02 00 E 41  29 0 16 00 N 22Solenzara 9  22 0 39 00 E 41  50 0 04 00 N 17 S. Diaf et al./Applied Energy 85 (2008) 968–987   969  In this study, two types of system configurations are considered:The first corresponds to the hybrid PV/wind system configuration in which the wind generator is connectedto the load via the AC/DC converter and the DC/AC inverter to meet the AC load (Fig. 1a). The second oneconcerns the system configuration that permits to the energy produced by the wind generator to be sentdirectly to load via an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and the energy surplus is transformed to DC cur-rent and it is subsequently stored in the batteries (Fig. 1b). The UPS is used to stabilize the wind turbine out-put as well as to protect the sensitive devices from undesired power fluctuations. 3. Renewable energy potential of Corsica Island As mentioned already, Corsica Island is blessed with good insolation levels: the annual average daily valueof solar radiation is about 4.5 kW h/m 2 .On the other hand, this region is characterized by a considerable wind potential which varies from site tosite: Ersa has the highest annual average wind speed (7.1 m/s), Calvi with 3.9 m/s, Figari (5.3 m/s) and Ajaccio Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of hybrid PV/wind system configurations with battery storage: (a) without UPS, (b) using UPS.970  S. Diaf et al./Applied Energy 85 (2008) 968–987   and Solenzara sites have the lowest wind speed 3.5 and 3.1 m/s, respectively.The wind speed values are refer-enced to a height of 10 m.In Fig. 2, the monthly average daily solar radiation and wind energy potential are plotted. We note that thefive sites have almost similar solar potential, while their wind potential is quite different. The annual windenergy potential varies between 116 kW h/m 2 for Solenzara against 845 kW h/m 2 for Ersa. The complemen-tary nature of the two renewable energy sources appears clearly for Ersa and in a lesser extend for Figari, whilefor Ajaccio, Calvi and Solenzara, this complementary nature does not really exist. 4. Modelling of hybrid PV/wind system components The modelling of the system plays an important role in the sizing calculation. For an HPWS with storagebattery, four main subsystems are included, the PV and wind systems, the inverter and the battery storage. Thedifferent modelling steps are summarized in the following sections. 4.1. Photovoltaic system model  In this study, the PV power generation simulation model consists of two parts, solar radiation on PV mod-ule surface and PV generator model. 4.1.1. Solar radiation on PV module surface The PV module is placed at any slope angle, then the horizontal solar radiation data must be converted intotilted solar global radiation.The total solar radiation on a titled surface  G  b  is calculated by the following expression [1]: G  b  ¼  G  b ; b  þ  G  r ; b  þ  G  d ; b  ð 1 Þ where  G  b, b ,  G  r, b  and  G  d, b  are the hourly beam, reflected and sky diffuse radiation on the tilted surface.To estimate the titled diffuse radiation, a combination of two models is used: CLIMED2 model [2] tocalculate the horizontal diffuse component from global one and the Klucher model [3] to compute the tilteddiffuse radiation from horizontal diffuse. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Month 02000400060008000    D  a   i   l  y   S  o   l  a  r   I  r  r  a   d   i  a   t   i  o  n   (   W   h   /  m    2    ) 06000120001800024000    D  a   i   l  y  w   i  n   d  e  n  e  r  g  y   (   W   h   /  m    2    ) ErsaFigariCalviAjaccioSolenzar a Solar IrradiationWind energy Fig. 2. Complementarity of renewable energy sources. S. Diaf et al./Applied Energy 85 (2008) 968–987   971
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