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Distillation Column Design

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distillation column project report
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    Abhimanyu , Ankur Abhinav, Ankit Sahu, Pranjal Goswami REPORT: DISTILLATION COLUMN DESIGN  REPORT: DISTILLATION COLUMN DESIGN 2 Table of Contents Problem Statement .......................................................................................... 3 Executive Summary ......................................................................................... 3 Design Process Overview ................................................................................ 3 Process Description .......................................................................................... 4 Design of Distillation Column ............................................................................. 4 Thermodynamics ........................................................................................... 4 Equilibrium Data ......................................................................................... 4 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Data ...................................................................... 5 Preliminary Calculations ................................................................................. 5 Calculation of Tower Diameter (Fair’s Method)  .................................................. 8 Heat Exchangers: Condenser and Re-Boiler .................................................... 10 Condenser: .............................................................................................. 10 Re-boiler: ................................................................................................ 11 Height of Column ........................................................................................ 13 Thickness of Column Material ........................................................................ 13 Thickness of Tori-spherical Head ................................................................... 14 Weight of Tower Material .............................................................................. 14 Cost Data ................................................................................................... 14 Evaluation of Annualized Fixed Cost and Annual Operating Cost: .................... 15 Optimization ............................................................................................... 15 Hydraulic Design ......................................................................................... 16 Bubble Cap Trays: .................................................................................... 16 Nozzles ................................................................................................... 16 Design of Support ..................................................................................... 18 Pressure Drop Calculations ........................................................................... 20  REPORT: DISTILLATION COLUMN DESIGN 3 Problem Statement A process stream of a mixture of benzene and toluene having 50 %(w/w) composition of benzene has to be concentrated by Distillation. The distillate product stream has to contain 95% (w/w) Benzene. The bottom product stream should contain maximum 3% benzene in it. The operating pressure for the operation is 1.1 atm. Design the distillation column using data supplied and consulted reference handbooks. Executive Summary This report consists of a detailed design of a binary distillation column to increase the concentration of benzene from 50% (w/w) in the feed to 95% (w/w) under given process conditions. The design procedure required determination of the optimum reflux ratio and the corresponding number of stages required for achieving the specified concentration of product. The optimum value for R/R min  was found to be 1.1. Calculations corresponding to this ratio yielded the design of a distillation column which is 9.5 meters high, 2.7 meters wide with 19 Bubble cap trays. Each bubble-cap tray consists of 166 openings arranged in a triangular pitch. Design Process Overview The optimization was carried out based on economic considerations of the design. The Annualized Fixed Cost and Operating cost for several reflux ratios were evaluated and plotted. It must be noted that the optimization parameters include the cost of column, trays, and heat exchange units only along with the utility costs. Following the determination of an optimum reflux ratio, the type of tray was selected after consideration of economic and operational parameters. Further, the theoretical number of stages required was estimated graphically using McCabe-Thiele method.  REPORT: DISTILLATION COLUMN DESIGN 4 The column height was then determined using the actual number of trays required and a fixed tray spacing. Next, the dimensions of the column heads were calculated followed by design calculations for tray and nozzles. Hydraulic design for the column was done after estimating the pressure drop. Check was made to avoid weeping, down-comer flooding and entrainment conditions for the optimum design. After the calculations, the support for column was designed using standard procedure for supports of tall vessels. The data used in the design procedure were noted from reliable sources acknowledged in the bibliography. Process Description The feed containing 50% (w/w) mixture of benzene and toluene is available at ambient temperature. **Incomplete Design of Distillation Column This section contains the detailed design process (mechanical and hydraulic) of binary distillation tower for separation of benzene and toluene. Thermodynamics Equilibrium Data x 1 0.82 0.66 0.50 0.38 0.28 0.15 0.06 0.0   y 1 0.92 0.83 0.72 0.60 0.45 0.30 0.13 0.0 [Provided Data]

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Jul 23, 2017
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