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  SluitenWLE Austria Logo (no text).svgWiki Loves Africa: Share your African cuisine photos with the World !arate ro# Wikipedia$ the free encyclopedia%his article is a&out the #artial art. or other uses$ see !arate (disa#&iguation).!arate( 空手 ) Karatedo.svgHanashiro Chomo.jpgHanashiro ChomoAlso known as Karate Do 空手道 Focus StrikingHardness Full contact, Semi contact, ight contactCountr! o srcin #!uk!u KingdomCreator Sakukawa Kanga$ %atsumura S&kon$ 'tosu Ank&$ Arakaki Seish&$ Higaonna Kanr!&(arenthood 'ndigenous martial arts o #!uk!u 'slands, Chinese martial arts*++-l!mpic sport oKarate / 空手 0) /1k23r45ti51$ 6apanese pronunciation7 ka8ate+ / listen)) is a martial art developed in the #!uk!u 'slands in what is now -kinawa, 6apan. 't developed rom the indigenous martial arts o #!uk!u 'slands /called te / 手 0), literall! 9hand9$ tii in -kinawan) under the in:uence o Chinese martial arts, particularl! Fujian ;hite Crane.*++ Karate is now predominantl! a striking art using punching, kicking, knee strikes, el<ow strikes and open hand techni=ues such as kni e>hands, spear>hands, and palm>heel strikes. Historicall! and in some modern st!les grappling, throws, joint locks, restraints, and vital point strikes are also taught.?+ A karate practitioner is called a karateka / 空手家 0).Karate developed in the #!uk!u Kingdom. 't was <rought to the 6apanese mainland inthe earl! @th centur! during a time o cultural echanges <etween the 6apanese andthe Chinese. 't was s!stematicall! taught in 6apan a ter the Baisho era.+ 'n * the  6apanese %inistr! o Education invited ichin Funakoshi to Bok!o to give a karate demonstration. 'n * Keio Gniversit! esta<lished the rst universit! karate clu< in  6apan and <! *?, major 6apanese universities had karate clu<s.I+ 'n this era o escalating 6apanese militarism,J+ the name was changed rom 唐手 /9Chinese hand9 or 9Bang hand9)+ to 空手 /9empt! hand9) L <oth o which are pronounced karate L to indicate that the 6apanese wished to develop the com<at orm in 6apanese st!le.M+ A ter ;orld ;ar '', -kinawa <ecame an important Gnited States militar! site and karate <ecame popular among servicemen stationed there.+ Bhe martial arts movies o the *J@s and *@s served to greatl! increase the popularit! o martial arts around the world, and in English the word karate <egan to <e used in a generic wa! to re er to all striking><ased -riental martial arts.*@+ Karateschools <egan appearing across the world, catering to those with casual interest as well as those seeking a deeper stud! o the art.Shigeru Egami, Chie 'nstructor o Shotokan Dojo, opined that 9the majorit! o ollowers o karate in overseas countries pursue karate onl! or its ghting techni=ues ... %ovies and television ... depict karate as a m!sterious wa! o ghting capa<le o causing death or injur! with a single <low ... the mass media present a pseudo art ar rom the real thing.9**+ Shoshin agamine said, 9Karate ma! <e considered as the con:ict within onesel or as a li e>long marathon which can <e won  onl! through sel >discipline, hard training and oneNs own creative eOorts.9*+'n @@, in the **st 'nternational -l!mpic Committee voting, karate did not receive the necessar! two>thirds majorit! vote to <ecome an -l!mpic sport.*?+ Karate was <eing considered or the @@ -l!mpics,*+Phowever at a meeting o the '-CNs eecutive <oard, held in #ussia on %a! , @*?, it was decided that karate /along with wushu and several other non>martial arts) would not <e considered or inclusion in @@ at the '-CNs *Ith session in Quenos Aires, Argentina, in Septem<er @*?.*I+;e< 6apan /sponsored <! the 6apanese %inistr! o Foreign AOairs) claims there are I@million karate practitioners worldwide,*J+ while the ;orld Karate Federation claims there are *@@ million practitioners around the world.*+1Contents * Histor! *.* -kinawa *. 6apan  (ractice .* Kihon . Kata .? Kumite . Dojo Kun .I Conditioning .J Sport . #ank ? (hilosoph!  Et!molog! I Karate and its in:uence outside 6apan I.* Canada I. Korea I.? Soviet Gnion I. Gnited States I.I Europe I.J Gnited Kingdom I. 'tal! I.M France J Film and popular culture  Karate in mied martial arts M See also  #e erencesHistor!-kinawaSee also7 -kinawan martial artsKarate <egan as a common ghting s!stem known as te /-kinawan7 ti) among the (echin class o the #!uk!uans. A ter trade relationships were esta<lished with the %ing d!nast! o China <! King Satto o ChRan in *?, some orms o Chinese martial arts were introduced to the #!uk!u 'slands <! the visitors rom China, particularl! Fujian (rovince. A large group o Chinese amilies moved to -kinawa around *? or the purpose o cultural echange, where the! esta<lished the communit! o Kumemura and shared their knowledge o a wide variet! o Chinese arts and sciences, including the Chinese martial arts. Bhe political centraliation o   -kinawa <! King Sh& Hashi in * and the polic! o <anning weapons <! King Sh& Shin in *, later en orced in -kinawa a ter the invasion <! the Shimau clan in *J@, are also actors that urthered the development o unarmed com<at techni=uesin -kinawa.+ Bhere were ew ormal st!les o te, <ut rather man! practitioners with their own methods. -ne surviving eample is the %oto<u>r!R school passed down rom the %oto<u amil! <! Seikichi Gehara.*M+ Earl! st!les o karate are o ten generalied as Shuri>te, aha>te, and Bomari>te, named a ter the three cities rom which the! emerged.*+ Each area and its teachers had particular kata, techni=ues, and principles that distinguished their local version o te rom the others.%em<ers o the -kinawan upper classes were sent to China regularl! to stud! various political and practical disciplines. Bhe incorporation o empt!>handed ChineseKung Fu into -kinawan martial arts occurred partl! <ecause o these echanges and partl! <ecause o growing legal restrictions on the use o weaponr!. Braditional karatekata <ear a strong resem<lance to the orms ound in Fujian martial arts such as Fujian ;hite Crane, Five Ancestors, and angrou>=uan /Hard So t Fist$ pronounced 9&jRken9 in 6apanese).@+ %an! -kinawan weapons such as the sai, ton a, and nunchaku ma! have srcinated in and around Southeast Asia.Sakukawa Kanga /*ML*M?M) had studied pugilism and staO /<o) ghting in China /according to one legend, under the guidance o Kosokun, srcinator o kusanku kata).'n *M@J he started teaching a ghting art in the cit! o Shuri that he called 9Budi Sakukawa,9 which meant 9Sakukawa o China Hand.9 Bhis was the rst known recorded re erence to the art o 9Budi,9 written as 唐手 . Around the *M@s SakukawaNs most signicant student %atsumura S&kon /*M@L*M) taught a s!nthesis o te /Shuri>te and Bomari>te) and Shaolin /Chinese 少林 ) st!les.citation needed+ %atsumuraNs st!le would later <ecome the Sh&rin>r!R st!le.Ank& 'tosu, rand ather o %odern Karate%atsumura taught his art to 'tosu Ank& /*M?*L**I) among others. 'tosu adapted two orms he had learned rom %atsumara. Bhese are kusanku and chiang nan.citation needed+ He created the pingNan orms /9heian9 or 9pinan9 in 6apanese) whichare simplied kata or <eginning students. 'n *@* 'tosu helped to get karate introduced into -kinawaNs pu<lic schools. Bhese orms were taught to children at the elementar! school level. 'tosuNs in:uence in karate is <road. Bhe orms he created arecommon across nearl! all st!les o karate. His students <ecame some o the most well>known karate masters, including ichin Funakoshi, Kenwa %a<uni, and %oto<u Ch&ki. 'tosu is sometimes re erred to as 9the rand ather o %odern Karate.9*+'n *MM* Higaonna Kanr!& returned rom China a ter !ears o instruction with #!u #!u Ko and ounded what would <ecome aha>te. -ne o his students was the ounder o ojR>r!R, Ch&jun %i!agi. Ch&jun %i!agi taught such well>known karateka as Seko Higa /who also trained with Higaonna), %eitoku Tagi, %i!aato EiNichi, and Seikichi  Boguchi, and or a ver! <rie time near the end o his li e, AnNichi %i!agi /a teacher claimed <! %orio Higaonna).'n addition to the three earl! te st!les o karate a ourth -kinawan in:uence is that o  Kan<un Gechi /*ML*M). At the age o @ he went to Fuhou in Fujian (rovince, China, to escape 6apanese militar! conscription. ;hile there he studied under Shushiwa. He was a leading gure o Chinese anpa Shorin>ken st!le at that time.+ He later developed his own st!le o Gechi>r!R karate <ased on the Sanchin, Seisan, and Sanseir!u kata that he had studied in China.?+ 6apan   Bhis section needs additional citations or verication. (lease help improve this article <! adding citations to relia<le sources. Gnsourced material ma! <e challenged and removed. /%a! @*@)See also7 6apanese martial arts%asters o karate in Bok!o /c. *?@s), rom le t to right, Kanken Bo!ama, Hironori -tsuka, Bakeshi Shimoda, ichin Funakoshi, %oto<u Ch&ki, Kenwa %a<uni, enwa akasone, and Shinken Bairaichin Funakoshi, ounder o Shotokan karate, is generall! credited with having introduced and popularied karate on the main islands o 6apan. 'n addition man! -kinawans were activel! teaching, and are thus also responsi<le or the developmento karate on the main islands. Funakoshi was a student o <oth Asato Ank& and 'tosu Ank& /who had worked to introduce karate to the -kinawa (re ectural School S!stem in *@). During this time period, prominent teachers who also in:uenced the spread o karate in 6apan included Kenwa %a<uni, Ch&jun %i!agi, %oto<u Ch&ki, Kanken  B&!ama, and Kan<un Gechi. Bhis was a tur<ulent period in the histor! o the region. 'tincludes 6apanNs anneation o the -kinawan island group in *M, the First Sino> 6apanese ;ar /*ML*MI), the #usso>6apanese ;ar /*@L*@I), the anneation o Korea, and the rise o 6apanese militarism /*@IL*I). 6apan was invading China at the time, and Funakoshi knew that the art o Bang1China hand would not <e accepted$ thus the change o the artNs name to 9wa! o the empt! hand.9 Bhe d& suU implies that karated& is a path to sel >knowledge, not just a stud! o the technical aspects o ghting. ike most martial arts practiced in 6apan, karate made its transition rom >jutsu to >d& around the <eginning o the @th centur!. Bhe 9d&9 in 9karate>d&9 sets it apart rom karate>jutsu, as aikido is distinguished rom aikijutsu, judo rom jujutsu, kendo rom kenjutsu and iaido rom iaijutsu.ichin Funakoshi, ounder o Shotokan KarateFunakoshi changed the names o man! kata and the name o the art itsel /at least on mainland 6apan), doing so to get karate accepted <! the 6apanese <ud& organiation Dai ippon Qutoku Kai. Funakoshi also gave 6apanese names to man! o the kata. Bhe ve pinan orms <ecame known as heian, the three naihanchi orms <ecame known as tekki, seisan as hangetsu, Chint& as gankaku, wanshu as empi, and so on. Bhese were mostl! political changes, rather than changes to the content o the orms, although Funakoshi did introduce some such changes. Funakoshi had trained in two o the popular <ranches o -kinawan karate o the time, Shorin>r!R andSh&rei>r!R. 'n 6apan he was in:uenced <! kendo, incorporating some ideas a<out distancing and timing into his st!le. He alwa!s re erred to what he taught as simpl! karate, <ut in *?J he <uilt a dojo in Bok!o and the st!le he le t <ehind is usuall! called Shotokan a ter this dojo. Bhe moderniation and s!stemiation o karate in 6apan also included the adoption o the white uni orm that consisted o the kimono and the dogi or keikogiPmostl! called just karategiPand colored <elt ranks. Qoth o these innovations were srcinated and popularied <! 6igoro Kano, the ounder o judo and one o the men Funakoshi consulted in his eOorts to modernie karate.A new orm o karate called K!okushin was ormall! ounded in *I <! %asutatsu -!ama /who was <orn a Korean, Choi Teong>Eui 최영의 ). K!okushin is largel! a s!nthesis o Shotokan and &jR>r!R. 't teaches a curriculum that emphasies aliveness, ph!sical toughness, and ull contact sparring. Qecause o its emphasis on ph!sical, ull> orce sparring, K!okushin is now o ten called 9 ull contact karate9, or 9Knockdown karate9 /a ter the name or its competition rules). %an! other karate
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