Donkeys and Garlic

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  Abells Sutton G, Haik R  Efficacy of garlic as an anthelmintic in donkeys Israel Journal Veterinary medicine VO! E #$ %&', &(((  TITLE : AUTHOR:  G. Koret School of Veterinary Medicine Hebrew University of Jerusalem, .!. . #$, %&#'' (ehovot (ead it all )ntroduction Materials and Methods (esults *iscussion Summary Garlic was ineffective in decreasin+ fecal Stron+yl ova counts in doneys two wees after treatment. -ither was +arlic simly not effective or was the e/traction method or the dose inaroriate. 0lternatively, +arlic may function bystimulain+ the immune system. 1his asect was not evaluated in this study. )ntroduction Garlic 2  Allium sativum 3 has been used medicinally worldwide for manycenturies 2#,$,43. )n 5hinese herbal medicine, it is used to revent influen6a,relieve to/icities and ill arasites such as roundworms and taeworms 273.1oday, +arlic is used as a home remedy for diverse health roblems such ashead cold, toothache, earache, nausea, hi+h blood ressure and for treatment of cancer and other chronic diseases 283. (ecent evidence of its current use by layersons in )srael is available throu+h reorts recently ublished on treatment of burns caused by the use of +arlic comresses 2&3. -mirical evidence in favor of the use of +arlic has been accumulatin+ since the#9%'s. Garlic and +arlic e/tracts have been under investi+ation for secific rolessuch as antibacterial activity 2$3, liidlowerin+ effects 2#,$,%3, antilateletactivity 2$,43 and anticarcino+enic effects 2$,;,9,#'3. Some of the results havebeen encoura+in+. Stron+ylidae are intestinal nematodes of horses and doneys 2##,#43 which canbe e/tremely atho+enic. )n horses, they commonly cause anemia butoccasionally cause diarrhea, severe emaciation and even fatal colic. arasitismin the e<uine is universally controlled by the use of commercially availableanthelmintics with roven efficacy administered at re+ular intervals 2#4,#73. )n )srael, many horse and doney owners consider +arlic as a viable alternativeto commercial anthelmintics. )t is readily available, aears to imrove the healthof the animals and is erceived to cost less than commercial rearations. 1hereis some evidence to suort this ractice. Garlic has been reortedly successful  in reducin+ arasitism by 5aillaria s. in car 2#83 and as a mos<uito larvacide2#&3. -fficacy of a arasite control ro+ram can be evaluated by documentin+reduction in the herd avera+e fecal e++ counts one to two wees after treatment.1his is carried out on oulations of individuals since the variation in fecal e++counts in an individual can vary +reatly 2#4,#%,$4,$73. 1he main ob=ective of this study was to determine whether a +arlic treatmentmethod commonly used in )srael to treat horses and doneys is efficacious as ananthelmintic a+ainst Ston+ylidae in doneys. ac 1o 1o )ntroduction Materials and Methods (esults *iscussion Materials and Methods 1hirty si/ doneys from one farm were included in the study. 1he doneys werenot on a commercial anthelmintic ro+ram. 1heir a+es were estimated bydescritions of dental wear and +rowth 2##3. 1heir wei+hts were estimated by theuse of a formula which incororates the hei+ht and chest circumference of eachindividual 2#$3. 1he doneys were randomly divided into three +rous of twelve.Most of the doneys were females. Seven doneys were under $ years of a+e.1hese were randomi6ed searately as a bloc to ensure e<ual distributionamon+ the +rous. !ne +rou was left untreated as a ne+ative control. 0second +rou was treated with a standard anthelmintic as a ositive control. 1hethird +rou was treated with +arlic. Fecal ova counts  1he 5ornellMcMaster dilution e++ count techni<ue was used 2#43. >ecalsamles were taen directly from the rectum of each animal. 1he fecal countin+was carried out in a blind fashion? the +rou of ori+in was unnown at the time of the countin+. 1en +rams of feces was susended in #8' ml of water. 0ll fecalcounts were carried out twice and then comared for reeatability 2recision3 bylottin+ them on a +rah which tests how well the relicate e++ counts fit theoisson distribution. )f the techni<ue is carried out correctly, the reeated countsshould follow a oisson distribution 2#43. S<uare roots of e++ counts were thenused in all subse<uent calculations since s<uare root transformation of a oissonvariable converts the variance to a near constant for all but very low values of thevariable, and since root e++ counts are symmetrically distributed about a meanfor all but very low values while e++ counts er +ram is sewed 2#43. 0lso, use of s<uare roots converts inte+er results into continuous data allowin+ for a normaldistribution and arametric analysis. Anthelmintics    >enbenda6ole 2anacur @3 susension was used as the well establishedanthelmintic in the ositive control +rou. 1he dosa+e was %.8 m+A+ and it wasadministered orally. Garlic was reared by boilin+ 4'' ml. of water for every head of +arlic untilsoft . 1he roduct was then mashed and administered orally with a syrin+e at thedosa+e of one head of +arlic er doney. Experimental design  Samles were taen one wee rior to treatment, on the day of treatment andtwo wees thereafter. Statistical analsis  1he avera+e of the s<uare roots of the two retreatment fecal counts 21# and1'3 were tested for normality by the BilShairoAranit lot. 1he +rous werethen tested for similar means in a+e, wei+ht and initial fecal ova counts by oneway 0C!V0. 1he avera+e of the s<uare roots of the retreatment fecal counts were thencomared with the osttreatment samle by usin+ a twotailed aired Students ttest to determine whether the osttreatment samles were si+nificantly differentfrom the retreatment samle within each +rou. 1he two factor 0C!V0 was used to determine whether there was a difference inthe fecal e++ counts between the +rous due to the treatment or due to a+e2adult vs. =uvenile3. 1he 1uey 2HS*3 test was then alied to determine which of the +rous had a mean that was different from the other +rous.  0ll statistical calculations were erformed by Statisti/@ software. ac 1o 1o )ntroduction Materials and Methods (esults *iscussion (esults 1able # shows the a+e and wei+ht of each doney in each of the threetreatment +rous. 1he retreatment fecal e++ counts were D 4'' e++s er +ram indicatin+ thatthe minimal arasite load re<uired for anthelmintic evaluation was resent 2#%3. 0ll the fecal e++ counts had reasonable reeatability showin+ that the technicalerformance of the fecal e++ count calculation was reliable 2data not rovided3.1he avera+e number of the two counts is recorded in 1able $. Table 1: The estimated age (years) and weight (wt) (kg) of each indivual donkey in each treatment groups. )eight estimates are *+ -. kg if / - years of age and *+ &. kg if 0 - years of age1  5ontrol Grou>enbenda6ole GrouGarlic Grou
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