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  2. a. Purpose of Maintenance The main purpose of regular maintenance is to ensure that all equipment required for production is operating at 100% efficiency at all times. Through short daily inspections, cleaning, lubricating, and making minor adustments, minor problems can be detected and corrected before they become a maor problem that can shut do!n a production line. good maintenance program requires company#!ide participation and support by e$eryone ranging from the top eecuti$e to the shop floor personnel. &f proper and regular maintenance is undertaken than production capacity can be maintained at a more or less same le$el. Maintenancealso requires replacement decisions. 'eplacement is a substitution of eisting fied asset !ith a ne! asset, !hich may enhance features capable of performing similar function. The need for replacement may arise because of normal use, obsolescence, early ser$ice failure, destruction, etc. If proper and regular maintenance is undertaken than production capacity can be maintained at a more or less same level. Maintenance also requires replacement decisions. Replacement is a substitution of existing fixed asset with a new asset, which may enhance features capable of performing similar function. The need for replacement may arise because of normal use, obsolescence, early service failure, destruction, etc.  Maintenance policy ensures that equipments are al!ays in ready and reliable condition. This ensures company is able respond to any sudden change in demand.  Maintenance policy ensures that equipments are al!ays calibrated to pro$ide good#quality products and competiti$e ad$antage. This ensures that there are no sudden and frequent breakdo!ns and reduce production of defecti$e products.  Maintenance policy ensures that there are no maor breakdo!ns. This ensures there is no lose of in$entory or market share for companies follo!ing (&T philosophy.  Maintenance policy ensures that costs are al!ays controlled.  Maintenance policy is particularly important in capital#intensi$e industries.  Maintenance policy ensures that equipments are al!ays in ready and reliable condition. This ensures company is able respond to any sudden change in demand.  Maintenance policy ensures that equipments are al!ays calibrated to pro$ide good#quality products and competiti$e ad$antage. This ensures that there are no sudden and frequent breakdo!ns and reduce production of defecti$e products.  Maintenance policy ensures that there are no maor breakdo!ns. This ensures there is no lose of in$entory or market share for companies follo!ing (&T philosophy.  Maintenance policy ensures that costs are al!ays controlled.  Maintenance policy is particularly important in capital#intensi$e industries. b. )hen planning on producing a ne! product and*or ser$ice, the key factor is the product and ser$ice design. +uccessful designs come do!n to these basic principles translate customers wants and needs, refine existing products and services, develop new products and services, formulate quality goals, formulate cost targets, construct and test prototypes, document specifications, and translate products and service specification into process specification s. The process of design has certain steps that include moti$ation, ideas for impro$ement, organi-ational capabilities, and forecasting. &n the product process inno$ations, research and de$elopment play a significant role. ecause of the influence a product and ser$ice design can ha$e on an organi-ation, the design process is encouraged to be tied in !ith the organi-ation/s strategy and take into account some key considerations.The greater the degree of customer contact, the greater the opportunity for selling. &n addition, c oncepts and ideas generated are captured in sketches or in service prototypes. The strong visual element, combined with the opportunity to test and rapidly change services and interfaces, delivers real value in today's competitive markets. Product esign combines ergonomics !ith product and business kno!ledge to generate ideas and concepts and con$ert them into physical and usable obects or ser$ices. The discipline co$ers the entire range of acti$ities from concept, manufacturing, testing to product launch. Product esigners conceptuali-e and e$aluate ideas and themes they find profitable. The designers make these ideas tangible through products using a systematic approach.Product and ser$ice design are $ery important factors to customer satisfaction. rgani-ations need to continually satisfy their customers  to be successful in the marketplace. They are able to do this by impro$ing current products or by designing ne! ones  c. Design of Work Systems is an important component in Production and Operations Management. Designof Work Systems forms the basis and explains the importance of work design. Design of Work Systemsis used to describe the two basic approaches to job design the !rst approach focuses on #ciencythrough job speciali$ation and the other focuses beha%ioral approaches to job design. Design of WorkSystem also entails method analysis which in turn centers on how jobs are performed. Moti%ation and &rust also form an important dimension in Design of Work systems as this alone pro%ides anopportunity to the Organi$ation to de%elop e'ecti%e teams who can achie%e organi$ations short andlong term objecti%es. Moti%ation and &rust obser%ations also emphasi$es working conditions that in turnlead to work measurements which leads to reward and compensation of the indi%idual working for theorgani$ation. (n short this topic of Design of Work Systems pro%ides the perfect bridge betweenProduction and Operations Management with )uman *esource Managemen d. What is technology management+ &echnology management is a set of management disciplines that allows organi$ations to manage its technological fundamentals to create competitive advantage . (t is %ery important for an organi$ation to manage its technology strategically because when it is not well managed it might result into a big loss in the organi$ation. Managing technology in%ol%es planning designing optimi$ing operation and control of technological products. &echnology management aims at maximi$ing the cost e'ecti%eness of in%estments in technology de%elopment which contributes to the %alue of an organi$ation. (f an organi$ation fails to plan for its technology it might encounter issues like data loss or misuse of that technology by its employees. ,ut if the organi$ation creates a frame work and plans for its technology its output will increase. ,elow ( ha%e listed some of the importance-s of technology management   ã /rowth of the 0irm &he process of managing technology in%ol%es organi$ing coordinating and managing acti%ities. (f technology is well managed an organi$ation will impro%e on its operations and reduce on operational costs of the organi$ation. &he technical sta' will ha%e a challenge of analy$ing what  customers need and specify whichtechnologies are supposed to be implemented as well as spot the ones to be stopped. 1fter this process of analy$ingwhat is necessary both the organi$ation and its consumers will bene!t which will lead to the growth of that organi$ation.   liminates duplication (f technology is well managed it will automate information 2ow in an organi$ation. (n this case the technical team will set up a management information system 3M(S4 which pro%ides periodic predetermined and ad5hoc reporting capabilities. (n most cases the M(S reports summari$e or aggregate information to support decision5making tasks. So M(S-s are systems that ha%e information5processing responsibilities that include information through online analytical processing3O61P4 and con%eying information to whoe%er needs it. &o a small organi$ation this process might be expensi%e so people in charge must calculate return on in%estment. M(S-s are commonly known as 7-management alerting systems 7-- because they send alerts to management concerned to the existence or potential existence of problems or opportunities.1 management information system 3M(S4pro%ides reports in many di'erent forms. (ts reports can be periodic reports  summari$ed reports  exception reports  ad hoc reports and comparati%e reports. 3. While the need for structure is clear the best structure for a particular coalition is harder to determine. &he best structure for any organi$ation will depend upon who its members are what the setting is and how far the organi$ation has come in its de%elopment.*egardless of what type of structure your organi$ation decides upon three elements will always be there. &hey are inherent in the %ery idea of an organi$ational structure. &hey are ã Some kind of go%ernance ã *ules by which the organi$ation operates  ã 1 distribution of work Governance  &he !rst element of structure is go%ernance 5 some person or group has to make the decisions within the organi$ation. Rules by which the organization operates 1nother important part of structure is ha%ing rules by which the organi$ation operates. Many of these rules may be explicitly stated while others may be implicit and unstated though not necessarily any less powerful. Distribution of work  (nherent in any organi$ational structure also is a distribution of work. &he distribution can be formal or informal temporary or enduring but e%ery organi$ation will ha%e some type of di%ision of labor. &here are four tasks that are key to any group ã n%isioning desired changes. &he group needs someone who looks at the world in a slightly di'erent way and belie%es he or she can make others look at things from the same point of %iew. ã  &ransforming the community. &he group needs people who will go out and do the work that has been en%isioned. ã Planning for integration. Someone needs to take the %ision and !gure out how to accomplish it by breaking it up into strategies and goals. ã Supporting the e'orts of those working to promote change. &he group needs support from the community to raise money for the organi$ation champion the initiati%e in the state legislature and ensure that they continue working towards their %ision. 8OMMO9 *O6 S %ery group is di'erent and so each will ha%e slightly di'erent terms for the roles indi%iduals play intheir organi$ation but below are some common terms along with de!nitions and their typical functions. ã 1n initial steering committee is the group of people who get things started. Often this group will create plans for funding and organi$ational and board de%elopment. (t may also generate by5laws and then dissol%e. (f they continue to meet after approximately the !rst sixmonths we might say they ha%e metamorphosed into a coordinating council. ã 1 coordinating council 3also referred to as a coordinating committee executi%e committee andexecuti%e council4 modi!es broad organi$ation5wide objecti%es and strategies in response to input from indi%iduals or committees. ã Often one person will take the place of the coordinating council or may ser%e as its head. Such a person may be known as the xecuti%e Director Project 8oordinator Program Director or President. )e or she sometimes has a paid position and may coordinate manage inspire super%ise and support the work of other members of the organi$ation. ã  &ask forces are made up of members who work together around broad objecti%es. &ask forces integrate the ideas set forward with the community work being done. ncourage :uality teamwork by rewarding groups for good performance. 8reate incenti%es to work well as a team by gi%ing praise and issuing small tokens of appreciation that bear the project or company name. 1lan Orr author of the book ;1d%anced Project Management; suggests gi%ing the team publicity for its work. Such a gesture instills a sense of meaning and %alue into the nature of the job thereby boosting teamwork among group members. &eamwork is enhanced when workers know each other and are comfortable discussing a %ariety of issues. ,uild this  sense of camaraderie by formulating team acti%ities. &hese e%ents could be informal such as meeting together o%er co'ee at the nearby caf< or the team building e%ent may be more elaborate by taking place o%er the weekend at a secluded resort on the outskirts of town.  A common perception and experience is that supply chain management leads to cost savings, largely through reductions in inventory. Inventory costs have fallen by about 60% since 19!, hile transportation costs have fallen by !0% #$ilson, !00&. 'uch cost savings have led many to pursue inventory(reduction strategies in the supply chain. )o develop the most effective logistical strategy, a firm must understand the nature of product demand, inventory costs, and supply chain capabilities.*irms use one of three general approaches to manage inventory. *irst, most retailers use an inventory control approach, monitoring inventory levels by item. 'econd, manufacturers are typically more concerned ith production scheduling and use flo management to manage inventories. )hird, a number of firms #for the most part those processing ra materials or in extractive industries& do not actively manage inventory.+any agribusiness firms do not actively manage inventory. )his does not mean that they ignore inventory. ather, they hold large inventories because any potential savings from inventory reductions are far out eighed by the inventory(induced reductions in production, procurement, or transportation costs. -ften economies of sie cause long productions runs hich lead to inventory accumulation. 'imultaneously, seasonality leads to inventory buildups of /ey inputs li/e seed as ell as outputs li/e corn. conomies in procurement such as for ard buying in the food industry and uantity discounts increase inventories. 'imilarly, unit trains and other forms of bul/ shipping discounts contribute to inventory buildups. 2et, such firms must be alert to changing conditions that may reuire more exact inventory management. -ne example ould be if cropsare mar/eted as small lots of value(added grain instead of commodities. 3roduction proliferation in the seed industry may be another instance. *inally, hether due to food safety concerns, 4+-s, food labeling, or the gro th of organic food mar/ets, identity preservationreuires more precise inventory control. The Importance of Demand Inventory management is influenced by the nature of demand, including hether demand is derived or independent. A derived demand arises from the production of another product. *or example, hen 5ohn eere /no s its demand for a tractor, it can simply compute thedemands for the parts, materials, and components needed to produce that tractor. +anufacturers of all sies use such calculations hichare part of flo management to manage inventories, schedule deliveries for inputs, and manage capacity. *lo management soft are has evolved from +aterials euirements 3lanning #or +3& in the 1960s to the much more complex nterprise esource 3lanning #or 3& of the 1990s. A flo management system is set in motion by the demand for end products.Independent demand arises from demand for an end product. nd products are found throughout a supply chain. $heat is an end product for a grain elevator, as is flour for a miller or cereal for a grocer. 7y definition, an independent demand is uncertain, meaning that extra units or safety stoc/ must be carried to guard against stoc/outs. +anaging this uncertainty is the /ey to reducing inventory levels and meeting customer expectations. 'upply chain coordination can decrease the uncertainty of intermediate product demand, thereby reducing inventory costs. Customer Service and Inventory )he availability of inventory provides customer service. )he Item *ill ate #I*& measures ho often a particular product #often called a stoc/ /eeping unit or '8& is available. A common metric of customer service, I* is expressed as the percentage of time that a customer can obtain the item they see/. A firm may set its customer service order policy at 9:%, see/ing to fill 9:% of the orders for an item from inventory.;o ever, life is a bit more complicated. A customer might not obtain hat they see/ for several reasons. )he seller may have run out of aproduct due to an inaccurate forecast. -r the supplier may have shipped an incorrect pac/age sie or flavor. 3roducts in inventory may  be unfit for sale because of damage or an expired shelf life. *inally, a seller may not have the capability to accurately trac/ inventory in their stores or distribution centers.)o avoid shortfalls or stoc/outs, firms carry extra inventory /no n as safety stoc/. As more customer service is provided, a firm can expect sales to increase #*igure 1   &. ;o ever, as a firm tries to provide perfect customer service, logistical costs increase exponentially.  Also, if a firm holds too much inventory, it can lead to lo inventory turnover and hide operational problems. *or example, carrying too much stoc/ means that you might not discover that your supplier is freuently late ith delivery times.
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