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Eco Introduction Labour Migration

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labour migration
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  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION Page 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Migration for employment is an important global issue, which nowaffects most countries in the world. Two major labour market forcesare in operation today that result in increased migration for work  –  many people of working age either cannot find employment or cannotfind employment adequate to support themselves and their families intheir own countries, while some other countries have a shortage ofworkers to fill  positions in various sectors of their economies. Otherfactors include demographic change, socio-economic and politicalcrises, and widening wage gaps within, as well as  between, developedand developing countries. There is consequently much movementacross borders for employment, with women independently migratingfor work in considerably greater numbers than in the past and nowcomprising about half of all migrant workers. Labour migration can have many beneficial elements for those countries which send and receive migrant workers, as well as for the workers themselves. It can assist both srcin and destination countries ineconomic growth and development. While acknowledging the sovereign right of States to develop their own labour and migration policies,it is important to direct attention to the need to adopt coherent and comprehensive national  policies to effectively manage labour migrationand to protect migrant workers. Special attention should be given to themultiple disadvantages and discrimination often faced by migrantworkers on the basis of gender, race and migrant status. Further, issuesrelated to the movement of workers across national borders cannot beeffectively addressed when  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION Page 2 countries act in isolation; hence, international cooperation in managing labour migration can be valuable inaddressing national interests. The ILO Multilateral Framework comprises non-binding principlesand guidelines for labour migration. It is derived from extensiveresearch, as well as compilation and review of labour migration practices in all regions of the world. It has been drawn from  principles contained in relevant international instruments and international andregional  policy guidelines, including the International Agenda forMigration Management. Governments and the social partners areinvited to give effect to the principles and guidelines therein. TheFramework includes examples of best practices in Annex II. Relevantinstruments that relate to the principles are referenced below under theprinciples. The provisions of the Framework shall not limit or otherwise affect obligations arising out of the ratification of any ILO Convention. It is designed to provide practical guidance to governmentsand to employers‘ and workers‘ organizations with regard to the development, strengthening and implementation of national and international labour migration policies. It can also guide other parties interested in labour migration issues. In the broader context of commitment to promoting decent work forall, the Multilateral Framework aims to foster cooperation and consultation among and between the tripartite constituents of the ILO andthe Office, and in partnership with other international organizations,to assist them in implementing more effective policies on labourmigration, including on rights, employment and protection of migrantworkers. Our world is very unequal. For many people around the world moving away from their home town or village can be the best  —   sometimes the only  —   option open to improve their life chances. Migration can be hugely effective in improving the income, education  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION Page 3 a nd participation of individuals and families, and enhancing their children‘s future  prospects. But its value is more than that: being able to decide where to live is a key element of human freedom. There is no typical profile of migrants around the world. Fruit pickers, nurses, political refugees, construction workers, academics and computer  programmers are all part of the nearly 1 billion people on the move both within their own countries and overseas. When people move they embark on a journey of hope and uncertainty, whether within or across international borders. Most people move in search of better opportunities, hoping to combine their own talents with resources in the destination country so as to benefit themselves and their immediate family, who often accompany or follow them. Local communities and societies as a whole have also  benefited both in places of srcin and at destinations. People have different motives for migrating such as: economic reasons (to find work, escape famine, etc.) social reasons (for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends) political reasons (to escape cultural/political/religious persecution or war ) environmental reasons (natural disasters such as flooding, drought) The migration dynamic reflects the interplay of push factors (which make the people leave their home) and pull factors (which make people move to a particular area). Here are some examples: Push factors  - lack of jobs and services ,  poor safety or security ,  high crime levels ,  famine ,  drought ,  flooding ,  poverty , war  ,  political or religious persecution.   Pull factors- more jobs and services better quality of life low crime levels good food supplies better climate and fertile land less risk of natural hazard wealth political security.  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION Page 4 1.1 BACKGROUND TO LABOUR MIGRATION The first section covers the background to international labourmigration and looks at the key issues from a global and UK national perspective.It highlights the main initiatives taken by the UK both in the interests of migrant workers themselves and those of the UK economy. Among the key findings: ã T here are around 190 million people globallyliving in a country not of their birth. The ILO estimates that there are more than 42 million migrant workers worldwide, not including the millions of illegal migrants, many of whom are open to abuse and exploitation ã H ealth care workers make up an increasingproportion of migrant workers in the UK  –   the majority of whom are from sub-Sahara Africa and South East Asia. This haemorrhage of health workers from developing countries is having a devastating effect on those countries ã I n 2005 the government published a 5-year strategy for asylum and immigration which  proposed a points-based system for those coming into the UK to work or study. This strategy favoursskilled workers. ã T he UK has not ratified the 1990 UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and their Families, which would protect migrant workers and their families from abuse and exploitation.
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