Efficacy of rapeseed residue and eggshell waste on enzyme activity and soil quality in rice paddy

Efficacy of rapeseed residue and eggshell waste on enzyme activity and soil quality in rice paddy
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  This article was downloaded by: [University of Alberta]On: 06 August 2013, At: 13:30Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Chemistry and Ecology Publication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information: Efficacy of rapeseed residue andeggshell waste on enzyme activity andsoil quality in rice paddy Sang Soo Lee a  , Samy A.M. Abd El-Azeem a   b  , Jung Eun Lim a  ,Anushka Upamali Rajapaksha  a  , Kwon-Rae Kim c  , Young Han Lee d , Yong Bok Lee e  , Yoon-Young Chang f   & Yong Sik Ok aa  Department of Biological Environment , Kangwon NationalUniversity , Chuncheon , 200-701 , Korea b  Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture , Suez CanalUniversity , Ismailia , 41522 , Egypt c  Department of Agronomy Oriental Medicine Resource ,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology , Jinju ,660-758 , Korea d  Division of Plant Environmental Research , Gyeongsangnam-doAgricultural Research and Extension Service , Jinju , 660-360 ,Korea e  Department of Applied Life Chemistry , Gyeongsang NationalUniversity , Jinju , 600-701 , Korea f   Department of Environmental Engineering , KwangwoonUniversity , Seoul , 139-701 , KoreaPublished online: 28 Jun 2013. To cite this article:  Sang Soo Lee , Samy A.M. Abd El-Azeem , Jung Eun Lim , Anushka UpamaliRajapaksha , Kwon-Rae Kim , Young Han Lee , Yong Bok Lee , Yoon-Young Chang & Yong Sik Ok (2013)Efficacy of rapeseed residue and eggshell waste on enzyme activity and soil quality in rice paddy,Chemistry and Ecology, 29:6, 501-510, DOI: 10.1080/02757540.2013.810725 To link to this article: PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLETaylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,  and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. 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Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   A   l   b  e  r   t  a   ]  a   t   1   3  :   3   0   0   6   A  u  g  u  s   t   2   0   1   3  Chemistry and Ecology , 2013 Vol. 29, No. 6, 501–510, http: // / 10.1080 / 02757540.2013.810725 Efficacy of rapeseed residue and eggshell waste on enzymeactivity and soil quality in rice paddy Sang Soo Lee a , SamyA.M.Abd El-Azeem a,b , Jung Eun Lim a ,Anushka Upamali Rajapaksha a ,Kwon-Rae Kim c ,Young Han Lee d ,Yong Bok Lee e ,Yoon-Young Chang f  andYong Sik Ok  a * a  Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea;  b Soiland Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt; c  Department of Agronomy Oriental Medicine Resource, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju 660-758, Korea;  d   Division of Plant Environmental Research, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Service, Jinju 660-360, Korea;  e  Department of Applied LifeChemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 600-701, Korea;  f   Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701, Korea (  Received 22 December 2012; final version received 8 May 2013 )Addition of plant residue into soils improves soil physiochemical properties and its fertility. Rapeseedresidue is an emerging N source to paddy soils via rice-rape double-cropping practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of rapeseed residue and eggshell waste on chemical changes andenzyme activity in the rice paddy soil. The powdered eggshells at 0, 1, 3, and 5% were applied once to7.0kg paddy repacked soils in each pot treated with the rapeseed residue or the conventional N, P, and Kfertilisers. Eight rice seedlings ( Oriza sativa  L. cv. Ilmibyeo) (40days after sowing) were transplanted tothe treated each pot. The contents of total C (TC) and N (TN), and organic matter (OM) were significantlyincreased in soils treated with the rapeseed residue compared to the N, P, and K fertilisers. With theaddition of eggshell containing ∼ 92% CaCO 3 , a considerable increase of soil pH was observed in soilstreated with the rapeseed residue and the N, P, and K fertilisers, compared to the untreated soil.Activitiesof   β -glucosidase, urease, and arylsulfatase enzymes were higher in soils treated with the rapeseed residuethan soils treated with the N, P, and K fertilisers. The eggshell additions at 1, 3, and 5% into soils treatedwith the rapeseed residue increased enzyme activity mainly resulting from N mineralisation, whereas nochange in enzyme activity was observed in the soils treated with the NPK fertiliser. The combined use of the rapeseed residue and the eggshells can be beneficial to improve soil environment. Keywords:  bioenergy crop; enzyme activity; rapeseed residue; rice paddy soil; soil quality 1. Introduction Physicochemicalsoildegradationdirectlydeterioratessoilqualityandfertility.Thelong-termuseofchemicalfertilisersinagriculturalfieldshasbeenwell-knowntodevastatesoilenvironmentandeventually lead a decrease in crop productivity by loss of organic matter (OM).[1] Many attemptshave been made to reclaim the degraded soils using natural OM sources such as plant residues.Addition of natural OM sources into soils can not only be supplemental essential nutrients for *Corresponding author. Email: © 2013 Taylor & Francis    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   A   l   b  e  r   t  a   ]  a   t   1   3  :   3   0   0   6   A  u  g  u  s   t   2   0   1   3  502  S.S. Lee  et al. plants via their mineralisation but also be a stimulator for soil microbe. Consequently, soil qualityor fertility can be maintained naturally for agricultural sustainability.[2–4] Many types of organic manures are applicable to increasing agricultural productivity. Indeed,the use of rapeseed (  Brassica napus  L.) residue can sufficiently provide soils high-qualityplant-nutrients through mineralisation. The rapeseed residue is recognised as an emerging Nsource in paddy fields cultivating with rice-rape double-cropping system.[5] Because the ricepaddy field in Korea is occupied greater than 960,000ha reaching to 56.5% of total cultivatingfields (1,698,000ha), the successful adaptation of rice-rape double-cropping system might bebeneficial.[6] Rapeseed plant is also effective for increasing soil C at rice paddy following therice harvest. However, its efficacy has not been clearly demonstrated yet.To ensure the changes of microbiological functional diversity in soils by organic manuressuch as rapeseed residue, the determination of soil enzyme activity has been done by manystudies.[7,8] For example, the soil enzymes of   β -glucosidase, arylsulfatase, and urease are rep-resentatively being considered to trace the cycles of C, S, and N in soils, respectively.[9] Theenzyme of   β -glucosidase in soils produces sugar via hydrolysis from the degradation of organicmanures.Arylsulfataseandureasealsocatalysethehydrolysisoforganicsulphateestersandurea,respectively. Assessment of soil enzymes might be critical to describe nutrient cycling or avail-ability, and fertility in soils exposed to organic / inorganic soil amendments, which are typicallyinfluencing on soil pH.[7,10]Similarly, a liming to soil also leads to the changes of microbial diversity and enzyme activityby a sudden change of soil pH. Although the use of lime-based waste materials as a source of lime,suchaseggshells,havebeendevelopedtostabiliseandimmobiliseheavymetalsinsoils,[11]only few studies showed its performance for improving biological properties or soil quality. Foreggshells, it mostly consists of CaCO 3  (91.99%) and may provide sufficient Ca 2 + to soil andplants.[12,13] Therefore, this study hypothesises that the powdered eggshells incorporation withrapeseed residue may be an alternative to conventional chemical fertilisers (N, P, and K). 2. Materials and methods2.1.  Characterisation of paddy soil  Paddy soil samples at 0–30cm deep were collected from Seosan, Chungnam province, Korea,in spring, 2008. Samples were air-dried, ground to pass through a 2-mm sieve, and were chemi-cally characterised as shown in Table 1. The values of soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC)were measured using a pH meter and an EC meter, respectively (Orion 3-Star, Thermo Scien-tific, USA). The exchangeable cations were determined using 1N ammonium acetate (NH 4 OAC)extraction method at pH 7 and extracted cations were analysed using an atomic absorption spec-troscopy (AAS; AAnalyst TM 700 AAS, Perkin Elmer, USA). Available P 2 O 5  and OM content Table 1. Chemical properties of initial paddy soil.Exchangeable cationsCa 2 + Mg 2 + K + Na + pH a EC a,b Organic matter a Available P 2 O 5 1 : 5 dSm − 1 gkg − 1 mgkg − 1 cmol ( + ) g − 1 Paddy soil 6.3 0.21 28 85 6.1 0.8 0.1 0.1 a Data were shared with a study of Lee et al. [14]. b Electrical conductivity.    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   A   l   b  e  r   t  a   ]  a   t   1   3  :   3   0   0   6   A  u  g  u  s   t   2   0   1   3  Chemistry and Ecology  503 were determined using the Lancaster and theWalkley-Black methods, respectively.Additionally,total C (TN) and N (TN) were measured using a CN analyser (Sumigraph NC-95A, ShimadzuCorporation, Japan). 2.2.  Rapeseed residue and eggshell preparation Rapeseedplant(  Brassicanapus cv.Sunmang)wascultivatedinthepaddyfieldlocatedinYoungk-wang, Chunnam province, Korea, from October 2007 to June 2008. Rapeseed plants with 20-cmrootwereusedasgreenmanure.Afterremovingtheseed,therapeseedresidueincludingshootandroot was chopped for test.Total C and N of rapeseed residue are 34.02% and 0.54%, respectively,and the C / N ratio is 63, according to previous studies with the same rapeseed residue.[6,14]Eggshells were collected from a local restaurant located in Chuncheon, Gangwon province,Korea. The eggshells were washed twice using distilled water to remove any impurities and thenheated at 105 ◦ C for 72h. After drying, the eggshells were pulverised using a hammer mill andthen passed through a 1-mm sieve.[13,15] 2.3.  Experimental design with treatments A randomised complete block design was employed with five replicates. The conventional fer-tilisers (N, P, and K) or rapeseed residue was applied to experimental pots (75 × 45 × 20cm)filled with 7.0kg paddy soil at a bulk density of 1.11Mgm − 3 as independent variables. Basedon the initial contents of N, P, and K in the soil, 110, 30, and 30kgha − 1 of urea, fused super-phosphate, and potassium chloride, respectively, were added once to satisfy the recommendationof essential plant nutrients given by the Rural Development Administration (RDA), Korea. Therapeseed residue at a rate of 143kgNha − 1 , indicating the identical N content with conventionalfertiliser was applied for comparison. The prepared eggshell powder containing 91.99% CaCO 3 and 1.38% organic carbon was also applied once at different rates of 0, 1, 3, and 5wt% to thepreviously treated soils with the conventional fertiliser or the rapeseed residue. As a succeedingcrop, the rice seedling ( Oriza sativa  L. cv. Ilmibyeo) with a length of  ∼ 16cm (or 40days aftersowing) was transplanted to the experimental pots treated with the conventional fertiliser or therapeseed residue, followed by water saturation for 5days. The rice seedlings pots were grownunder a natural condition in a plastic rain shelter. 2.4.  Determination of enzyme activity Soil samples were collected from each treated pot after harvest. The collected soil samples wereair-driedandgroundat2mm.Soilsampleswerecharacterisedusingthemethodsdescribedaboveand compared to the initial soil. Microbial enzymes in soils were determined using the methoddescribed by Tabatabai.[16] Briefly, the determination of   β -glucosidase, urease and arylsulfataseactivity in the soils was done using  p -nitrophenyl- β -D-glucopyranoside, urea, and  p -nitrophenylsulphate, respectively. 2.5.  Statistics DifferencesintreatmentmeansweretestedusingtheTukey’sleastsignificantdifference(Tukey’sLSD) at a 0.05 significance level.[17]    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y  o   f   A   l   b  e  r   t  a   ]  a   t   1   3  :   3   0   0   6   A  u  g  u  s   t   2   0   1   3
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