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    ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 100  NAME : Wong Yee Jing (7E1B9107) Tan Tze Sing (7E1B9012) Goh Ruoh Chien (7E1B9087) Angela Voon Joon Lan (7E2B1464) Angela Tiong Ung Sang (7E2B1281) Koh Huey Ying (7E1B9270) GROUP : Group 1C Monday (8:00am) LABORATORY : 1 (Laboratory Test Equipments, Basic DC Measurements and Ohm’s Law)  LABORATORY SUPERVISOR : Mr. Chua Shin Cheng DATE PERFORMED : 4th March 2013 DATE SUBMITTED : 18th March 2013  Experiment 1: Laboratory Test Equipment, Basic DC Measurements And Ohm’s Law.   - 1 - Table of Contents Page 1.0  Introduction …………………………………………………………… . 2-4 2.0  Experiment 1: Ohm ’ s Law ……………………………………………… 5 2.1  Results and Calculations ……………………………………… ..5-6 2.2  Discussion ……………………………………………………… 7 3.0  Experiment 2: Basic Measurement I ………………………………… ...8 3.1  Results and Calculations ……………………………………… ..8 3.2  Discussion ……………………………………………………… 9-10 4.0  Experiment 3: Basic Measurement II ………………………………… .10 4.1  Results and Calculations ……………………………………… .10-11 4.2  Discussion ……………………………………………………… .12-13 5.0  Experiment 4: Basic Measurement III ………………………………… .14 5.1  Results and Calculations ……………………………………… ..14 5.2  Discussion ……………………………………………………… .15-16 6.0  Experiment 5: Basic Measurement IV ………………………………… .17 6.1  Results and Calculations ……………………………………… ...17-18 6.2  Discussion ……………………………………………………… .19 7.0   Conclusion……………………………………………………………… .20 8.0   References……………………………………………………………… .21 9.0  Appendix ……………………………………………………………… ...22-24  Experiment 1: Laboratory Test Equipment, Basic DC Measurements And Ohm’s Law.   - 2 - 1.0 Introduction Figure 1: Series Circuit In series circuit ( Figure 1 ), the current that flows through each of the components in the circuit is the same. This is because that any charges flow through one resistor must also flow through the other. Besides, the total voltage of the series circuit is the sum of voltage across each resistor. The voltage across each particular resistor can be calculated by using Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s law shows the relationship between the potential difference (V), current (I) and resistance (R). It can be written in three ways, R=  I V   or V=IR or I=  RV   Where: V =voltage/ potential difference (V) I = current (A) R =resistance (Ω)   Ohm’s law states that electric current passing through a conductor is directly  proportional to the potential difference across it provided the temperature and other conditions remain unchanged (Mastascusa 2012). The greater the voltage, the greater the current will be produced. According to theory which states that I is directly proportional to V, a straight line graph is obtained in graph of I versus V whereas, the graph of I versus 1/R shows a quadratic line which start from the srcin line as I is inversely proportional to R. The total resistance in the series circuit can be calculated by summing up all of those resistances in a series circuit by using Equation 1 . The equivalent resistance of a series connection of resistors is always greater than any individual resistance. R  T =R  1 +R  2 +…+R  n   (Equation 1)  V   R1 R  R3  Experiment 1: Laboratory Test Equipment, Basic DC Measurements And Ohm’s Law.   - 3 - Figure 2: Parallel Circuit Figure 2 shows a parallel circuit. A parallel circuit is a circuit that has more than one resistor which has multiple paths to move along. No charge will pass through the path if one of the items in the circuit is broken while other paths will continue to have charges flow through them (Wagon 1998). The potential drops are equal to the potential rise across each of the resistor. The equation is shown as below,            (Equation 2)  The current outside the branches is the same as the total of the current drawn from the supply. Equation 3  below shows the relationship of currents in branches. The current is not the same through each resistor because any charge flowing through one resistor cannot flow through the other.            (Equation 3)  The total resistance for parallel circuit is always less than any of the branch resistance. The total resistance in the circuit will decrease with the addition of more parallel resistances to the paths. Thus, the inverse of the total resistance of the circuit is equal to the sum of the inverses of the individual resistances. The equation is shown as below:            (Equation 4) V R3 R2 R1
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