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Elements of Life

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CHEMLIFE
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  ELEMENTS OF LIFE 92% elements occurring naturally in plants16 are essential elements*Hydrogen*Carbon 94% of the mass of most plant tissues*Oxygen*itrogen Organic compounds  ! molecules that contain carbon Inorganic chemicals  ! non carbon compounds Biochemicals  ! are organic and inorganic molecules that occur in li ing organism Four Major Classes of Large Molecules (Constituting the Massof a lant! 1# Car oh#drates  ! a substance composed of carbon$ hydrogen$ oxygena#onosaccharide & glucose $ galactose$ mannose $ fructose b#'isaccharide ! sucrose(glucose ) fructose$ maltose use in maple syrup to ma+e beer c#,olysaccharide*Cellulose ! structural polysaccharide&holds cells together *,ectin - Hemicellulose ! gluey polysaccharide that holds cellulose fibrils together   *.ums ! are complex$ branched polysaccharideconsisting of se eral +inds of monomers ex# .um arabic/ses of .um 0rabic1#use to stabilie postage stamp glue2#hand lotion#li3uid soaps*0gar - carrageenan ! commercially important  polysaccharide from red algae a slimy substance that surrounds the cellulose in cell 5alls of certain red algae*0mylose - amylopectin! storage polysaccharide5rin+led pea rice - corn*tarch ! storage polysaccharide in plants2# roteins  ! important in cell structure and as storage reser es &are also enymes that catalye biochemical reactions*torage proteins ! are stored mostly in seeds and are used as a source of nutrition for the earlyde elopment of seedlingsex# Corn ! 5ith storage protein called $ein% 7xtensin!structural protein in cell 5alls - membranes  & thought to play a role in the expansion of cell 5all  *7nymes ! are the catalyst for biochemical reactions&speed up reaction 5ithout being consumed in the process# Nucleic acid  ! #180 (ribonucleic acid ! 5ith sugar ribose#2'0(deoxyribonucleic acid ! 5ith deoxyribose sugar 4# Lipids  ! for energy storage&5ith 5ater repellant property Common Lipids in lants' *oils ! are fats that are li3uid at room temperature &combination of a molecule glycerol 5ith  long long chain organic acid$ called fatt# acids  fat ! is a triacylgyceride abundant in seedsex# Cotton$ sunflo5er$ coconut$ sesame$ oli e peanut$ corn$ castor bean$ soy bean*phospholipids*5axes ! ex# Cuticle of lea es$ fruits$ herbaceous stemare called epicuticular a)  Cutin - suberin & in the cor+ cells in bar+  Compounds in Lesser *mounts(ma+e # plants! 1#,henolics2#0l+aloids#terols4#la onoids  ã ,olymers ! are made of many identical or similar monomers assembled into large moleculesex# Cellulose$ starch$ enymes$ '0$ 5axes$lignin - tannin ã .lucose is the only monomers in cellulose - starch ã 7nymes and proteins consist of t5enty different amino acid monomers: there are probably more than ;<$<<< uni3ue  polymers made from amino acids in e ery plant ã Only four nucleotides ma+e a polymer of '0$ but e ery organism has a different set of '0 molecules
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