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Elite Organizational Deviance

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  ElITEORGANIZATIONALDEVIANCE DANGEROUSNUTRITION  79 CORPORATIONS   EliteOrganizationalDeviance DAVIDR SIMON Elite deviance,inallitsforms,nowconstituteamajorsocialproblemforU.S.societyand,aswillbeexplored,muchoftheworld,aswell.Thisdoesnotmean,however,thatthereisaconsensuSconcerningwhatconstitutesdeviance.Notionsofelitewrongdoing,white-collarcrime,andrelatedconceptsarenowthefocusofintensedebateinthesocialsciences.Inthisregard,theconflictperspectiveandtheevidenceamassedinsupportofitofferthebeststartingpointconcerningacausaltheoryofelitedeviance.Criminologistsandstudentsofcriminaljusticetendtofocusonthestudyofindividualcriminalsintheirresearch.Thecriminaljusticesystemitselfwasoriginallyestablishedtoprotecttherightsofaccusedpersons,nottodiscoverthecausesoforwaystopreventcriminalactivity,Asaresultofthisbiasir:U.S.society,thesocialsciencesfocusheavilyonindividualcrimes,individualrights,andindividualcases.Thisisespeciallythecasewithso-calledstreetcrimes(e.g.,homicide,robbery,burglary,andrape),whichreceivethelion'sshareofattentionandresourcesinlawenforcement,thecourts,andcorrectionalinstitutions.Streetcrimesarealsothemajorpreoccupationofboththecriminologyandcriminaljusticefields.Thisisnottosaythatthestreetcrimeproblemisunimportant.,..Infact,thecrimeproblemintheUnitedStatesisactuallyrootedinasysteminwhichlower-classcriminals,theMafia,acorruptpublicsector,anddeviantcorporationscooperateforpurposesofprofitandpower....[But]crimeanddeviancearesocietallypatterned.Thismeansthatcer-tainsociologicalfactorscausecrimestobecommittedbybothindividualsandorganizations.... FromElireDeVIance5/EbyDavidR.Simm.©1996byAllyn   Bacon.Reprintedby permissionofthepublisher 8 Thefoodindustryisobviouslybigbusiness.Inthissection,weexaminehowthefoodindustry,initssearchformoreprofits,oftendisregardsthehealthofconsumers,whichconstitutesdeviance.... AdulteratedProducts Wewillusethemeatindustryasourillustrationofblatantdisregardforthehealthofconsumers.UptonSinclair'sexposeoftheChicagostockyardsandmeat-packinghousesaround1900showedhowspoiledmeatwassold,howdangerousingredientswereusedinsausage(suchasratsanddung),andhowratsoverranpilesofmeatstoredunderleakingroofs. PresidentTheodoreRooseveltcommissionedaninvestigationofChicagomeatpackers,andasa'result,theMeatInspectionActof1906requiredthatmeat.soldininterstatecommercehadtobeinspectedaccordingtofederalstandards.However,meatprocessedandsoldwithinastatewasnotsubjecttothelaw,omittingaslateas1967nearly15percentofthemeatslaughteredand25percentofallmeatprocessedintheUnitedStates.Asaresult:SurveysofpackinghousesinDelaware,Virginia,andNorthCarolinafoundthefollowingtidbitsinthemeat:animalhair,sawdust,flies,abscessedporklivers,andsnuffspitoutbythemeatworkers.Toaddevenfurtherflavoring,packinghouseswhosemeatdidnotcrossstatelinescoulduse4-Dmeat(dead,dying,diseased,anddisabled)andchemicaladditivesthatwouldnotpassfederalinspection.Suchplantswerenotallminoroperations;somewererunbythegiants-Armour,Swift,andWilson.2In1967,theWholesomeMeatActwaspassed,specityingthatstateinspectionstandardsmustatleastmatchfederalstandards.Thiswasaccomplishedin1971,buttherehavebeencontinuingviolations.Oneproblemis Number2 meat-thatreturnedbyaretailertoapackerasunsatisfactoryandthenresoldasNumber2meattoanothercustomerifitmeetsstandardsofwholesomeness.Asanexampleofhowthiscanbeabused,considerthefollowingoccurrenceinaLosAngelesHormelplant:WhentheoriginalcustomersreturnedthemeattoHormel,theyusedthefollowingtermstodescribeit: moldyliverloaf,sourpartyhams,leakingbologna,discoloredbacon,off-conditionhams,andslickandslimyspareribs:'Hormelrenewedtheseproductswithcosmeticmeasures(reconditioning,trimming,andwashing).Spareribsreturnedforsliminess,discoloration,andstickinesswererejuvenatedthroughcuringandsmoking,renamedWindsorLoins,andsoldinghettostoresformorethanfreshporkchops.3ThisHormelabuseoccurredbecausetheU.S.DepartmentofAgricultureinspector,whowaspaid$6,000annuallybyHormelforovertime,lookedtheotherway.4   8 P RTVIREL TIONS MONGDEVI NTSELITEORG NIZ TION LDEVI N E  8 Meatpackersarealsodeceptiveaboutwhatisincludedintheirproducts.Thelabelsonpackagesarenotalwayscomplete.Consider,forinstance,theingredientsofthehotdog:Thehotdog...bylawcancontain69percentwater,salt,spices,cornsyrupandcereal,and15percentchicken;thatstillleavesalittleroomforgoatmeat,pigs ears,eyes,stomachs,snouts,udders,bladdersandesophagus-alllegallyokay.Thereisnomoreall-Americanwaytotakeabreakattheoldballgamethantohavewaterandpigs snoutsonabun,butyoumightprefertogoheavieronthemustardfromnow on.5 UptonSinclair sluriddescriptionofthe1900s-eraChicagoslaughterhousesfitssomesituationseventoday.In1984,NebraskaBeefProcessorsanditsColoradosubsidiary,CattleKingPackingcompany-thelargestsupplierofgroundmeattoschoollunchprogramsandalsoamajorsupplierofmeattotheDepartmentofDefense,supermarkets,andfast-foodchains-wasfoundguiltyof(1)regularlybringingdeadanimalsintoitsslaughterhousesandmixingrottenmeatintoitshamburgers,(2)labelingoldmeatwithphonydates,and(3)deceivingU.S.DepartmentofAgricultureinspectorsbymatchingdiseasedcarcasseswiththehealthyheadsfromlarger cows.6 TheNebraskaBeef-CattleKingscandalwasnotanisolatedcase.Twoadditionalexamplesmakethispoint.In1979,aNewJerseyfirmwasconvictedofmakingporksausagewithanunauthorizedchemicalthatmasksdiscolorationofspoiledmeat.Andin1982,aCaliforniacompanyusedwalkietalkiestoavoidinspectorswhiledoctoringrottensausage.? ExtensiveUseofAdditives Theprofitsfromthefoodindustrycomemainlyfromprocessingfarmgoodsthroughfortifying,enriching,andreformulatingtoproducegoodsthatlookappealing,havetherighttasteandaroma,andwillnotspoil.Morethan1,500foodadditiveshavebeenapprovedforuseasflavors,colors,thickeners,preservatives,andotheragentsforcontrollingthepropertiesoffood.Let sbrieflylookatsomeoftheseadditives.8Sodiumnitratesandnitratesareaddedtokeepmeatproductsappearingbloodred.Nitratesarealsousedtopreservesmokedfish.Avarietyofpreservativesisusedtopreventthespoilageofbread,cereals,margarine,fish,confections,jellies,andsoftdrinks.ThemostcommonlyusedareBHT,BHA,sodiumbenzoate,andbenzoicacid.About95percentofthecolorinthefoodweeatistheresultofsyntheticcolorsadded.TheuseofreddyeNo.2wasprohibitedbythegovernmentwhenitwasfoundtocausecancerinmice,althoughitisstillallowedinmaraschinocherriesbecauseitisassumedthatnoonewilleatmorethanoneortwoatatime.Flour,thatall-purposestaple,isbleachedandconditionedbyanumberofpotentpoisons-hydrogenacetone,benzylperoxide,chlorinedioxide,nitrogenoxide,andnitrosylchloride.Alsoaddedtoflouraresuchstrengthenersaspotassiumbromateandammoniumpresulfate.Anindirectadditivethataffectsthehealthofconsumersisonethatisfedtoanimals.Diethylstilbestrol(DES),anartificialfemalesexhormone,fattensabout75percentofthebeefcattleintheUnitedStates.Thishormoneisaddedbecauseitcausesdramaticweightgainonlessfeed.Ithasbeenoutlawedforusewithpoultry,althoughhensarefedarsenicbecauseitmakesthemlaymoreeggs.Sugarsubstitutesareanothertypeoffoodadditivethathasquestionablehealthconsequences.Cyclamatewasbannedin1970aftertestslinkedittovarioustypesofcancer.Andsaccharin,anotheradditive,hasbeenshowntobedangerousbuthasnotbeenbanned;Congresshasonlydecreedthatfoodcontainingsaccharinmustcarrywarninglabels.Thelatestsugarsubstitute,aspartame(orNutrasweet),isalsobelievedbysomescientiststoposeahealthdangertosome50millionregularusers.However,nobanorwarninghasbeenissuedforproductscontainingNutrasweet.Theper-capitaconsumptionofthevariousnoncaloricsweetenershasincreasedfromthesugar-sweetnessequivalentof2.2poundsin1960to20.0poundsin1988.9Thereisagreatdealofcontroversyamongscientistsabouttheeffectsofadditivesinourdiet. Altogether,laboratorytestshaveproducedevidencethatsome1,400substances-drugs,foodadditives,pesticides,industrialchemicals,cosmetics-mightcausecancer.Butthereareonlyafewchemjcalswhichalltheexpertsseeaslinkedtohumancancer.,,10Typically,governmentscientistsdisagreewiththescientistshiredbyindustry.11Severalconsiderations,though,shouldmakeuscautiousaboutwhatweeat.First,manyoftheadditivesarepoisons.Thequantltiesinfoodmaybeminute,butjustwhatarethetolerancelevels?Isanypoison,inanyamount,appropriateinfood?Istherethepossibilityofresiduebuild-upinvitalorgans?Second,whathappenstolaboratoryanimalsfedrelatively l rge quantitiesoftheseadditives?Theyarepoisoned;theydogetcancer;andtheydosufferfromothermaladiesinducedbytheadditives.Finally,whathappenswiththeinteractionoftheseadditivesonhumans?Scientistsmaybeabletotesttheeffectsofafewchemicals,butwhataboutthehundredsofthousandsofpossiblecombinations?Inasliceofbread,forexam ple therecanbeasmanyasninety-threepossibledifferentadditives.Thedangeristhatittakesyears,maybetwentyorthirtyofeatingaparticulardietforanindividualtodevelopcancer.Sincemostoftheadditivesarerelativelynew,wedonotknowwhattheymayeventuallycause.WedoknowthattheaverageAmericanhasincreasedhisorheryearlyintakeoffoodadditivesfromthreepoundsin1965toaboutfivepoundsin1977.12Andcancerratescontinuetorise.Why,then,docompaniesinsistonaddingthese-potentiallyharmfulchemicalstoourfood?Onepossibilityisthatconsumersdemandmorevarietyandconvenience.Butmoreimportant,thefoodindustryhasfoundthatprocessing   8 PARTVIRELATIONSAMONGDEVIANTSELITEORGANIZATIONALDEVIANCE  8 syntheticfoodsisveryprofttable.Asonefoodmarketerremarked, Theprofttmarginonfoodadditivesisfantasticallygood,muchbetterthantheprofttmarginsonbasic,traditionalfoods. 13Hightowerhasshownhowthisworks:Itgetsdowntothis:Processingandpackagingoffoodarebecomingmoreimportantpricingfactorsthanthefooditself.Whywouldfoodcorporationsrathersellhighlyprocessedandpackagedfoodthanthemuchsimplermatterofsellingbasics?Becauseprocessingandpackagingspellproftts.First,themoreyoudotoaproduct,themorechancestherearetobuildinprofttmargins-Heinzcanselltomatoesforaproftt,oritcanbottlethetomatoesforabiggerproftt,oritcanprocessthetomatoesintoketchupforstillmoreproftt,oritcanaddspicestotheketchupandsellitasbarbequesauceforafatproftt,oritcanaddflavorsandmeattenderizertothebarbequesauceforthefattestprofttofall.Second,processingandpackagingallowsartiftcialdifferentiationofonecompany'sproductfromthatofanother-inotherwords,sellingonthebasisofbrandnames.Potatoescanbesoldinbulk,ortheycanbeputinasackandlabeledSunGiant,whichwillbringahigherpriceandmoreproftt.Third,processingandpackagingallowtheuseofadditivestokeepthesameitemontheshelfmuchlongerandtheyallowforshipmentoverlongdistances,thusexpandingthegeographicreachofacorporation.Fourth,processingandpackagingseparateconsumersfromthepriceofrawfood,allowingoligopolisticmiddlementoholduptheconsumerpriceoftheirproductsevenwhenthefarmpricefalls.Whenthespinachcropissoabundantthatspinachpricestumbleatthefarmlevel,thesupermarketpriceofStouffer'sfrozenspinachsouffiedoesnotgodown.14What'smore,U.S.corporations,intheirquestforproftts,haveknowinglymarketeddefectivemedicaldevices,lethaldrugs,carcinogens,toxicpesticides,andotherharmfulproductsoverseaswhentheyhavebeenbannedforsaleintheUnitedStates.... THETO CCOINDUSTRY Althoughanumberofindustrieshavebeenguiltyofmanufacturing,advertising,andsellingharmfulproducts,wewillconsideronlythetobaccoindustry.In1979,ftfteenyearsaftertheftrstSurgeonGeneral'swarningthatsmokingislinkedtolungcancerandotherills,theSecretaryofHealth,Education,andWelfareissuedthenewSurgeonGeneral'sreportonthehealthhazardsofsmokingcigarettes.Thereportsummarized 30 000 previouslypublishedscientiftcstudiesandprovidedstrongevidencethat: 1 SmokingisaleadingcauseoElungcancerandamajorfactorinheartdisease,bronchitis,andemphysema.MorewomenintheUnitedStatesdiefromlungcancerthanfrombreastcancer,and 90 percentofalllungcan-cerissmokingrelated.Lungcanceroftenspreadsintobrainorintestinalcancer,sotobaccoftguresinthesekillersaswell.2.Thebabiesofmotherswhosmokewhilepregnantarebornlighteranddisplayslowerratesofphysicalandmentalgrowththanbabiesborntononsmokers.3.Two-pack-a-daysmokershavea100percentgreaterriskofdyinginanygivenyearthannonsmokers. 4. Smokingisespeciallyhazardoustoworkersincertainoccupations(asbestos,rubber,textile,uranium,andchemicalindustries.)5.Smokingkills400,000Americansand,a1994UniversityofCaliforniastudyconcluded,coststaxpayers 21billionannually.Thetotalsocialcostofsmokingis 2.06foreverypacksmoked(89centsofwhichispaidforbytaxpayers),atleast 100billionayearinlostworkerproductivityandprematuredeathsfromsmoking.15Passivesmokekillsanadditional50,000Americans.16Nomedicalgrouporscientiftcgroupintheworldhasdisputedtheconclusionthatsmokingisveryinjurioustohealth,yetthetobaccoindustrycontinuestopushitsproducts(buttressed,wemightadd,bygovernmentsubsidies).In1988,thetobaccoindustryspentanestimated 2.5billionpromotingitsproducts,muchofitaimedatportrayingsmokingasayouthfulandattractivehabit.Inthisregard,theFTChascharacterizedcigaretteadvertisingasfollows:Cigaretteadsassociatesmokingwithgoodhealth,youthfulvigor,socialandprofessionalsuccessandotherattractiveideas...thatarebothworthyofemulationanddistantfromconcernsrelatingtohealth....Thusthecigaretteisportrayedasanintegralpartofyouth,happiness,attractiveness,personalsuccess,andanactive,vigorouslifestYle.17Inadditiontoregularadvertising,thetobaccoindustryhascounteredtheantismokingcampaigninseveralways,eachofwhichindicatesdisregardforthehealthofconsumers.First,theindustryhasrefusedtoaccepttheevidenceagainstsmoking,especiallypassivesmoking.Theyarguethatthelinksbetweensmokingandvariousdiseasesaremerelyinferencesfromstatistics.AsBillDwyeroftheTobaccoInstitutehassaid, Statisticsarelikeabikinibathingsuit:whattheyrevealisinteresting;whattheyconcealisvital.,,18Representativesoftheindustryargueinthemediaandinspeechesbeforecivicgroupsthatthereisnoconclusivecause-and-effectrelationshipbetweensmokingandillhealth.Smoking,theyinsist,isamatterofindividualchoiceandnotadecisiontobemadebygovernment.AsecondtacticusedbythetobaccoindustryhasbeentoshoreupitspowerinWashingtonthroughextensivelobbyingeffortsandcontributionstothepoliticalcampaignsofkeydecisionmakers.Amoresubtlestrategyisgivingandwithholdingadvertisingmoniestopublications,dependingontheireditorialtreatmentofthetobaccoissue.19Althoughseveralpublications(e.g., Reader sDigest,GoodHousekeeping, and TheNewYorker donotacceptcigaretteadvertisingbasedonprinciple,mostdo.  l P RTVIREL TIONS MONGDEVI NTSELITEORG NIZ TION LDEVI N E 385 Asaresult,manypublicationsaredependentontheserevenuesandthusdonotwishtoangertheirsponsorsbyrunningarticlescriticaloftobacco. Time and  ewsweek forexample,havepublishedsupplementsonhealthtopicsincooperationwithprestigiousmedicalorganizationssuchastheAmericanMedicalAssociation;however,mostofthephysician-preparedmaterialsonsmokingwereeditedout.20Tobaccocompanieshavetargetedwomeninparticularaspotentialsmokersandsteppedupadvertisinginwomen'smagazines.Inresponse,thesemagazineshaveshownnearsilenceonthedangersofcigarettes.AstudybytheAmericanCouncilonScienceandHealthfoundthefollowingwithrespecttowomen'smagazines:Cosmopolitan,whichreceives$5.5millionayearincigaretteadvertising(nearlytenpercentofitstotalrevenue),devotedonly2.3percentofitstotalhealthcoveragetosmoking( althoughsmokingwasnotedasariskfactorinheartdisease,itwasnevermentionedinpreventativehealtharticlesorinreferencetolungcancer ).Mademoiselle,whichreceives$1millionincigaretteadvertising(7percentofitstotalrevenue),devotedlessthantwopercentofitshealthcoveragetosmoking( unreliablesourceofinformationaboutthehazardsofsmoking.Usededitorialploystodeemphasizesmoking,gavemisinformation,andexcludedsmokingfrommentiononrelevanthealthtopicsaltogether.Oneoftheworst )....Redbook,whichreceives$7.5millionincigaretteadvertising(sixteenpercentofitstotalrevenue),raneightyhealth-relatedarticles,butnotoneofthemonsmoking.21Thesemagazinesseemtoshyawayfromarticlesagainsttobaccousebecausetheyareafraidoflosingadvertisingrevenuesfromtobaccocompanies.Actually,thesepublicationsareafraidofmorethanjustlostrevenues.Thetobaccocompaniesarepartsofhugeconglomerates,andifallthecompaniesintheconglomerateswithheldtheiradvertisingdollars,themagazinesandnewspaperswouldbeinseriousfinancialtrouble.Economicpowerclearlyexplainswhyasocietypermitsandevenencouragestheproduction,distribution,andsaleofadangerousdrug.Anotherstrategyusedbytobaccocompaniestoincreasesalesinthefaceofantismokingpressuresistotargetmarketingtowardthosecategoriesofpeoplemostlikelytosmoke-theyoung,womenintheirearlytwenties,bluecollarmen,andracial ethnicminorities.AfricanAmericansandHispanicAmericans,forexample,havebeenthespecialtargetsofcigarettepromotion. Item: Cigarettesareheavilyadvertisedinblack-orientedmagazinessuchasEbony,Jet,andEssence.Billboardsadvertisingcigarettesareusedinblackcommunitiesfourtofivetimesmoreoftenthaninwhitecommunities.SmokingratesamongAfricanAmericanshaveincreasedfrom26to29percentinthe1990s,butsmokingratesamongwhiteshavestayedconstantat25.5percent. Item: African-Americanmenare30percentmorelikelythanwhitemalestodiefromsmokingrelateddiseases,andblackswhogiveupsmokingaremorelikelythanwhitestostartsmokingagain.22 Item: OfthetoptencompaniesadvertisinginHispanicmarkets,twoarecigarettecompanies.(PhilipMorriswasnumberone,andR.J.Reynoldswasnumberten.) Item: In1989,theCanadiangovernmentchargedthatImperialTobaccoLtd.(whichownsBrownandWilliamsonintheUnitedStates)and RJR MacDonald(ownedbyU.S.conglomerateRJRNabisco)deliberatelyattemptedtohookchildrenageseighteenandunderthroughitsadvertising.Evidencewasproduceddocumentingtobaccofirms'marketingplansforyoungsmokers,whichattemptedtochangeyouths'attitudesonsmokingandhealth.DocumentsalsomadeclearattemptsatconvincingFrenchspeakingCanadianyouthsagestwelvetoseventeentobeginsmokingfilteredandso-calledlightcigarettes. Item: IthasbeenestimatedbytheUnitedNationsthat500millionpeopleintheThirdWorldnationswilldiewithinthenextdecadefromsmokingrelatedillnesses.CigarettesareveryheavilyadvertisedinAsia,Africa,andLatinAmericaduetothelackoflegalrestrictionsfacedbytobaccoproducersinotherpartsoftheworld,suchasNorthAmericaandEurope(e.g.,warninglabels).23Tobaccocompanieslooktoexpandtheirmarketove~seas,particularlyindevelopingcountrieswhichpresentagrowingmarket.PhilipMorris,forexample,sellsmorethan175brandsin160countries,anditsforeignsaleshavegrownrapidly.24Theforeignmarketalsoprovidescompanieswithamarketforthehigh-tarbrandsthatarelosingsalesintheUnitedStates.Theproblemwithallthis,ofcourse,isthatthetobaccofirmsarepromotingtheuseofaknownhealthhazardfortheirownprofit.Finally,asthisisbeingwritten(summer,1994),theFDAhasaccusedthetobaccoindustryofdeliberately spiking theircigaretteswithhigherthannaturallevelsofnicotineinordertoaddictconsumers.Ifprovencorrect,thiscouldleadtotheclassificationofcigarettesasaddictive,andhencesubjecttofederalregulationasanaddictivesubstance.Thetobaccoindustryhasdeniedthattheirproductsareeitheraddictiveor spiked, butRepresentativeHenryWaxmanclaimsa1981tobaccofirmreport describedhowhighernicotinelevelsareachievedincigarettesbyusingspecificblendsoftobaccoandsuggestingthatthoseblendsshouldbeaddedtolow-tarcigarettestoenhancetheirnicotinecontentsignificantly. 25Tobaccosmokealsocontainsastrangeassortmentofadditives,includingmethoprene(aninsecticide),flavorings,yeast,wine,caffeine,beeswax,chocolate,andcoconutoil.26 POLLUTINGTHEENVIRONMENT Theassaultontheenvironmentistheresultofaneverlargerpopulation,higherratesofconsumption,andanincreasingrelianceontechnology.Theseareworldwidetrends. Notonlyaremoresocietiesacquiringmoreefficienttoolswherewithtoexploittheearth;nearlyeverywhere,thereareincreasingnumberstodotheexploiting,andbefoultheair,water,andlandinthe  7 process....

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