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Elliptical Sentence

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Definition and types of Eliptical Sentences
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  ELLIPTICAL SENTENCE   INTRODUCTION One of sentences or constructions which is usually used in everyday communication is elliptical sentence or construction. It is a kind of construction in which the speaker deletes the item or items from the construction. However, when he or she wants to delete, he or she has to pay attention to the rule stated above. The rule is based on both linguistics and non  –  linguistics context. Here is one example of ellipsis based on linguistics context:  After learning English, I am able to speak it fluently. “After learning English” can be made into complete   form: “After I learned English” or “after I have learned   English”. Further explanation of it is as follows.   THE STRUCTURE OF ELLIPTICAL CONSTRUCTION The structures of English elliptical construction are as follows: 1.   The elliptic structures a.   Two positive statements that have same predicate (including object and complement) can  be arranged as follows: Here are some of the examples: 1) He is busy. I am busy.    He is busy, and I am too. Or    He is busy, and so am I. 2) You bought a new book. She bought a new book.    You bought a new book, and she did too. Or    You bought a new book, and so did she. 3) John likes swimming. Maria likes swimming.    John likes swimming, and Maria does too. Or subject + verb (be) …+ and + subject + verb (be) … + too   subject + verb (be) …+ and + so + verb (be) … +  subject       John likes swimming, and so does Maria. 4) Budi has written it. I have written it.    Budi has written it, and I have too. Or    Budi has written it, and so have I  b.   Two Negative statements that have same predicate (including object and complement) can  be arranged as follows: Here are some examples: 1) I don‟t like smoking. He doesn‟t like  smoking.    I don‟t like smoking, and he   doesn‟t either. Or       I don‟t like smoking, and neither   does he. 2) He wasn‟t ill and I wasn‟t ill.      He wasn‟t ill, and I wasn‟t either.  Or    He wasn‟t ill, and neither was I.   3) Ali didn‟t ask any question. You didn‟t  ask any question.    Ali didn‟t ask any question, and you   didn‟t either. Or       Ali didn‟t ask any question, and  neither did you. c.   Two positive statements which contain compound verb (auxiliary/modal + verb) can be arranged by using the pattern in point “a”.  Here are some examples: 1) He will come here soon. She will come here soon.    He will come here soon, and so will she. Or    He will come here soon, and she will too. 2) Budi can play the piano. I can play the piano.    Budi can play the piano, and I can too. Or Negative statement, + and + subject + negative auxiliary + either Negative statement, + and + neither + positive auxiliary + subject     Budi can play the piano, and so can I. d.   Two negative statements which contain compound verb (auxiliary/modal + verb) can be arranged by using the pa ttern in point “b”.  Here are some examples: 1) He can‟t play tennis. You can‟t play  tennis.    He can‟t play tennis, and you can‟t  either. Or    He can‟t play tennis and neither can  you. e.   The combination of negative statements and positive statements with the same tense is arranged by using the conjunction “but”.  The pattern is as follows: Here are some of the examples: 1) Amir can play a guitar. Ali can‟t play a  guitar.    Amir can play a guitar, but Ali can‟t.  Arifah is a student. Fatimah is not a student.    Arifah is a student, but Fatimah isn‟t.   2) I don‟t like smoking. He likes smoking.      I don‟t like smoking, but he does.   3) She didn‟t buy a new car. You bought a  new car.    She didn‟t buy a new car, but you did.  f.   The combination of two positive statements which contains verb, noun, etc; in the same tense is arranged by using the conjunction Here are some of the examples: 1) I study English. He studies English.    Both I and he study English. 2) Amir was happy. Udin was happy. Negative negative Subject + auxiliary …….. + but + subject + auxiliary ……..  (modal) (modal)   “Both…and…”       Both Amir and Udin were happy. 3) You can drive a car. He can drive a car.    Both you and he can drive a car. 4) You have written a novel. Rina has written a novel.    Both you and Rina have written a novel. g.   The pattern  below is used to state “one of    two actions” in two sentences with same  tense. Here are some of the examples: 1) We can read a newspaper. We can play the guitar.    We can either read a newspaper or play the guitar. 2) He will take it. I will take it.    Either he or I will take it. 3) You may play football. You may play tennis.    You may play either football or tennis. h.   The pattern below is used to state “none of”:  Here are some of the examples: 1) My brother isn‟t  policeman. My brother isn‟t a postman.      My brother is neither a policeman nor a postman. 2) He doesn‟t want a pencil. He doesn‟t  want a book.    He wants neither a pencil nor a book. 3) Betty can‟t read. Mary can‟t read.       Neither Betty nor Mary can read. 4) I d idn‟t buy a car. My friend didn‟t buy  a car.     Neither I nor my friend bought a car. Either … or … + positive auxiliary (modal).   Neither…nor…+ positive auxiliary  (modal).
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