Encryption Primer por Cathy Nolan

1. Encryption Primer PACMG Cathy Nolan 03/26/2008 2. Encryption Primer <ul><li>Encryption Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Why Encrypt…
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  • 1. Encryption Primer PACMG Cathy Nolan 03/26/2008
  • 2. Encryption Primer <ul><li>Encryption Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Why Encrypt </li></ul><ul><li>Encrypting ‘Data at Rest’ </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  • 3. What is Encryption? <ul><li>Cryptology is the science of encryption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryptography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Literally means hidden writing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of making and using codes to secure communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryptanalysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of obtaining the original message from an encrypted message without knowing the algorithms or keys used for encryption </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 4. What is Encryption? <ul><li>More on Cryptology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process of changing plaintext into ciphertext </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of changing ciphertext into plaintext </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. What is Encryption? <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1900 B.C. – one of the earliest documented forms of written cryptography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caesar Cipher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used during prohibition era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navajo Codetalkers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used in every day life today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordering coffee at Starbucks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily cryptograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email exchanges </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. What is Encryption? <ul><li>All kinds of uses </li></ul>SECRET = VHFUHW Caesar Cipher or Super Hero Code Ring Secure Web Site Cryptogram
  • 7. What’s So Hard About That? <ul><li>Encryption is a subset of security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our basic concept of security is to lock something with a key. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security plans are are designed around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication (Person or Equipment looking for data) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality (can’t read it if you find it) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity (not altered in transit) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-repudiation (logging who did what and when) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. What’s So Hard About That? <ul><li>What kind of key </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric (Public) keys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a combination of public and private keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require a secure exchange for the public key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be very CPU intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symmetric (Private) keys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same key is used for encryption and decryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a secure exchange which is complicated and not always secure </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. What’s So Hard About That? <ul><li>Hashing Algorithms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a hash value also known as a message digest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures data has not been altered in transit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secure Hash Standard (SHS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1) as a secure algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keys + Hash = Confidentiality + Integrity </li></ul>
  • 10. Public Key Encryption (AKA Asymmetric) Step 1: Cathy uses John’s public key to encrypt message Step 2: John uses his private key to decrypt message Plaintext Ciphertext Plaintext John’s Public Key John’s Private Key
  • 11. Private Key Encryption (AKA Symmetric) Step 1: Cathy uses a private key to encrypt message Step 2: John uses the same private key to decrypt message Plaintext Ciphertext Plaintext Key 00110011 Key 00110011
  • 12. Ciphers <ul><li>Plaintext can be encrypted through one of two methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block Ciphers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Message is divided into fixed blocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each block of plaintext bits is transformed into an encrypted block of cipherext bits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use algorithm functions including exclusive OR (XOR), substitution or transposition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream Ciphers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processes message bit by bit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often use XOR algorithm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 13. Ciphers Simple Stream Cipher Simple Block Cipher Plaintext Ciphertext Key Substitution XOR Key Plaintext Ciphertext Bit Bit Block Block
  • 14. Encryption Algorithms <ul><li>RSA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an asymmetric key algorithm that offers both encryption and digital signatures (authentication) created by mathematicians Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DES/3DES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Encryption Standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by IBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is considered to be the best known and widely used symmetric algorithm in the world. </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Encryption Algorithms <ul><li>AES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has now emerged as the successor of DES/3DES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is intended to be the block cipher standard for the next 15-25 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blowfish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to DES, but uses a variable-length key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This strong encryption algorithm is unpatented and license-free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available to the public at no cost. </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Encryption Algorithms <ul><li>IDEA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While IDEA is patented in several countries, it is available for non-commercial use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was incorporated into Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) V2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skipjack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is an algorithm developed by the National Security Agency and declassified in June 1998 </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Business Drivers <ul><li>Consumer Identity Theft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit Card Fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone or Utilities Fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bank Fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment-related Fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Documents / Benefits Fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loan Fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumer Identity Theft Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional impacts to consumer and business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. The Hardest Questions <ul><li>What Data Needs to Be Encrypted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data in Motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data at Rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do I determine what needs to be encrypted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do I manage the keys </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Data In Motion WAN Encrypted text Encrypted text Plain text Plain text Data-in-motion is encrypted as it leaves the source location and is decrypted as it arrives at its destination location
  • 20. Data At Rest SAN Disk Tape Plain text Plain text Encrypted text Data-at-Rest is concerned with protecting data as it sits at-rest in a database or on a device that is not transversing the network
  • 21. What Data Should Be Encrypted? <ul><li>Some Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the organization’s data been classified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much data is classified as public vs. non-public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is that data stored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why type of data needs to be protected (e.g. database information, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the data duplicated or replicated to a remote site for DR or audit purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is the data transported or replicated to the remote site </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Key Management <ul><li>Where are my keys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are the keys created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who maintains the keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has access to the keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital for at-rest security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losing the keys loses the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to allow for recovery of data for years </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Key Management
  • 24. Encryption Market Space <ul><li>Encryption Market Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining in maturity, still evolving, not all standards have been set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key management is a critical component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mismanagement of keys could lead to the potential that data could not be restored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major players have finally entered market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor players are for the most part small, venture capital firms </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Encryption Market Space <ul><li>Encryption Market Space </li></ul>MF WINDOWS <ul><ul><li>Decru/Netapp CipherMax PGP Unylogix Falcon Store Ingrian Vormetric RSA/EMC Veritas/Symantec NBU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>O/S Encryption Options </li></ul><ul><li>Linux/UNIX </li></ul>MegaCryption CA EFS Sun/STK IBM
  • 26. Encryption Options <ul><li>Software solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Based Encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Aware Encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware solution </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inline Encryption Appliance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tape Drive solution </li></ul><ul><li>O/S Level </li></ul>
  • 27. Encryption Options <ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What data are you trying to protect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much data are you trying to protect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the data have to move anywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What solution(s) can meet your needs without introducing complexity </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. Performance Impacts <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software encryption uses CPU cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you need to move data over the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tape Drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. Summary <ul><li>Data needs to be protected </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption is one option </li></ul><ul><li>But encrypting data has its challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Consider short term and long term expectations for data protection </li></ul><ul><li>Research is an absolute necessity </li></ul>
  • 30. ? Questions
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