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  L,T,T ENDO Cortisol   Normal Values 8:00 am 5-23 mcg/dL 2:00 pm 3-15 mcg/dL 8:00 pm <half of8:00 am value Cortisol levels are increased with:    Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas, Cushing disease, steroids, OCPs,  and non- pituitary-ACTH producing tumors. Cortisol levels are decreased with:    Addison s disease, CAH, ACTH deficiency  and Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome . Estriol, a metabolite of estradiol Normal Values 24-28 weeks 30-170 ng/mL 28-32 weeks 40-220 ng/mL 32-36 weeks 60-280 ng/mL 36-40 weeks 80-350 ng/mL Estriol is one of the three main estrogens and the dominant form during pregnancy. It is a measure of placental and fetal function. It is part of the triple  and quadruple screening tests  for fetal well-being. Decreased second trimester estriol can be a marker for:    Placental insufficiency, Down syndrome, Trisomy 18, anencephaly  and other neural tube defects. Follicle-stimulating Hormone Normal Values Male 4-25 mIU/mL Female pre-menopause 5-30 mIU/mL Female midcycle peak 10-90 mIU/mL Female post-menopause 40-250 mIU/mL FSH levels are increased with:    Menopause, post-menopause, gonadal failure  and Turner syndrome  FSH levels are decreased with:    PCOS, pregnancy, Kallmann syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, hypothalamic  and pituitary dysfunction    Growth hormone Arginine stimulation Normal Value Adult 22-28 mEq/L GH-arginine test is administered to determine whether GH deficiency  is the cause of poor growth. If GH levels fail to increase with the administration of arginine, a diagnosis of GH deficiency can be made. Hemoglobin AIC Normal Value  Adult <6% Hemoglobin AIC levels measure the percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin, reflecting the average blood sugar level from the previous three months. Hemoglobin AIC level of 6.5 or greater on two occasions is sufficient for the diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus . Leutenizing hormone Normal Values Male 6-23 mIU/mL Female follicular 5-30 mIU/mL Female midcycle 75-150 mIU/mL Female post-menopause 30-200 mIU/mL LH is increased in:    Menopause, postmenopausal gonadal failure  and PCOS  (LH:FSH ratio usually above three) LH is decreased in:    Hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction, Kallmann syndrome and hyperprolactinemia Parathyroid hormone Normal Values Adult 230-630 pg/mL Hyperparathyroidism occurs in:    Primary hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid adenoma, parathyroid hyperplasia), secondary hyperparathyroidism (severe hypocalcemia, kidney failure and  vitamin D deficiency) Hypoparathyroidism occurs in:    Surgical removal during thyroidectomy, hypercalcemia, hypomagnesaemia, DiGeorge's syndrome and  autoimmune polyglandular syndrome    Progesterone Normal Values Female (pre-ovulation) < 1 ng/mL Female (mid-cycle) 5-20 ng/mL Postmenopausal or Males < 1 ng/mL Pregnancy 1 st  trimester 8-48 ng/mL Pregnancy 2 nd  trimester 25-89 ng/mL Pregnancy 3 r   trimester 99-342 ng/mL Progesterone is a hormone secreted by the corpus luteum and is responsible for preparing the endometrium for implantation. Progesterone levels help determine when ovulation  is occurring as well as the functional status of the corpus luteum and  placenta during  pregnancy.  Progesterone levels are ten times greater in pregnancy and are markedly increased, along with estrogen levels in Sertoli cell tumors of the ovary . Prolactin Normal Values Adult < 20 ng/mL High prolactin levels or hyperprolactinemia  is seen in:    Pregnancy, prolactinoma, hypothyroidism, post-seizure  and with drugs such as antipsychotics (haloperidol).  Low prolactin levels are seen in:    Sheehan syndrome Testosterone Normal Values Male 300-1000 ng/dL Female 15-70 ng/dL High testosterone levels are seen in:    PCOS , adrenogenital syndromes, menopause  and Leydig cell tumors . Low testosterone levels seen in:    Hypogonadism, hypopituitarism, Kallmann syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome,  normal aging and infections ( mumps  and HIV/AIDS )  Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Normal Values Adult 0.5-5.0 mcU/mL TSH  is the preferred lab test for thyroid dysfunction. TSH is increased in:    Primary hypothyroidism ( Hashimoto's thyroiditis  or after radioiodine therapy) TSH is decreased in:    Primary hyperthyroidism ( Grave's disease ) , secondary hypothyroidism ( Sheehan syndrome  and pituitary dysfunction) and tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamic dysfunction) Thyroxine (T4) Normal Values Adult 5-12mcg/dL FT4 with TSH provides the best assessment of thyroid function. T 4 is converted to the active T3  by iodothyronine deiodinase. FT4 is the amount of hormone not bound to protein. FT4 is increased in:    Hyperthyroidism  or exogenous administration ( synthroid ) FT4 is decreased in:    Hypothyroidism  Note: OCPs  and pregnancy  will cause an increase in Total T 4 but FT will remain constant. Triiodothyronine (T3) (N 115-190 ng/dL) Normal Values Adult 115-190 ng/dL T3 total is increased in:    Hyperthyroidism, T3 toxicosis, pregnancy and OCPs  (due to increased binding  proteins) T3 total is decreased with:    Hypothyroidism
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