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Endocytosis and Exocytosis

the different types of endo and exocytosis.
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    Endocytosis and Exocytosis Endocytosis =  The process of taking materials into a cell by surrounding them with part of the plasma membrane, which then  pinches off to form a vesicle inside the cell. This is an active process involving ATP.- Textbook ; -------  “is an   energy- using process by which cells absorb  molecules (such as proteins) by engulfing them. It is used by all cells of the body because most substances important to them are large  polar molecules that cannot pass through the  hydrophobic  plasma or  cell membrane  . The opposite process is exocytosis.”  - Wikipedia.; Exocytosis  = The process of removing materials from the cell by fusing vesicles containing the material with the plasma membrane - Textbook--------- “  is the durable, energy- consuming process by which a cell directs the contents of secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane and into the extracellular space. These membrane-bound vesicles contain soluble  proteins to be secreted to the extracellular environment, as well as membrane proteins and lipids that are sent to become components of the cell membrane. ”  - Wikipedia Neuron A (transmitting) to neuron B (receiving) 1. Mitochondrion 2. Synaptic vesicle with neurotransmitters 3. Auto receptor 4. Synapse with neurotransmitter released (serotonin) 5. Postsynaptic receptors activated by neurotransmitter (induction of a postsynaptic potential) 6. Calcium channel 7. Exocytosis of a vesicle 8. Recaptured neurotransmitter components of the cell membrane.   Type of bulk transport Description definition Examples Phagocytosis One of three types of endocytosis. It means cellular eating, part of the plasma membrane engulfs the particle. Mainly used by unicellular protists, and white blood cells.   Pinocytosis  Another type of endocytosis. Small vesicles “pinch off” from the plasma membrane, bringing small dissolved substances. It means cellular drinking Receptor meditated endocytosis Used by animal cells to capture specific macromolecules from the cell’s environment. This process uses   Endocytosis Composed of 3 different methods that a cell can absorb substances that are bigger and/or polar which the cell membrane cannot allow through since it is semi-permeable.  A)    Secretory vesicles:  The secretary vesicle is a type of transporter organelle that is used to deliver particles within the cell or from the cell to outside of the cell. B)    Invagination  : the action or process of being turned inside out or folded back on itself to form a cavity or  pouch.# 2. a) ---- 2. b) “The hypothalamus is   responsible for regulating the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. It is responsible for secreting releaser  factors which instruct the pituitary gland to secret certain hormones. This is illustrated below.    In Figure 1 above, the releaser hormone from the hypothalamus finds its target tissue, a pituitary cell. It binds to the receptor where a chemical messenger instructs the cell to release the desired hormone.    In figure 2, the messenger may instruct the release of the hormone, or bind to the receptor and enter the nucleus to instruct the production of a particular hormone Finally, the secreted hormone will target a specific tissue (for instance the thyroid gland) and instruct the tissue to produce a particular substance”    –   source ----- -It is important that this happens fast and this is done by the use of Pinocytosis. This means that the hormone is released and absorbed quickly, using the same process.


Jul 23, 2017
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