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Essay Part 2

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Essay Part 2
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  2.0 The Challenge in education: Teacher’s emotional disturbance, innovation and changes in education. Educational systems around the world have been experiencing changes and reforms. The 21 st  century has brought a greater demand for the nation to produce quality teachers. Therefore, it is acknowledged that teachers are not only one of the „variables‟ that need to be changed in order to improve the educational system but are also the most sign ificant agents in this reform. Teachers in today‟s world are having emotional disturbance because of the dual role of teachers; as the subjects and objects of change. The challenges in education are the teachers‟ emotional disturbance, innovation and also the changes in Malaysian education. Higher expectations and greater needs in minister‟s aspirations have brought job stress to the teachers to perform effectively in the classroom. Job stress is defined as the “relationship between the person and the en vironment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well being”  (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984 in Carson, R., Plemmons, S., Templin, T., & Weiss, H., 2011). Teachers nowadays are undergoing emotional disturbances as our education are emphasizing on quality teachers who are the determinants of their student achievement. The key objective is to improve the quality of education so that students have the skills needed for life and work in the modern economy. Those skills are known as students‟ aspiration inside the Malaysian Education Blueprint where by 2025 every Malaysian student will have knowledge, thinking skills, leadership skills, bilingual proficiency, ethics and spirituality and a strong sense of national identity. Thus, because of the current changes in education, teachers are undergoing continual stresses as they must instruct their students, evaluate their performance, and help them in the overall developmental process of growing up. Teachers in Malaysia have become the driving force to raise the capacity of knowledge and innovation and nurture the „first class mentality‟ among their students. The National Higher Education Plan also outlines aspects that will transform the quality of human  capital by focusing on all the necessary attributes that define First Class Mentality. As stated in Action Plan, …This transformation plan aims squarely on holistic human capital (modal insane) development to produce Malaysian who are intellectually active, creative and innovative, ethically and morally upright, adaptable and capable of critical thinking. The model human capital would also need to be well-rounded individuals with an appreciation for humanistic pursuits such as the arts, culture, sport and volunteerism. (National Higher Education Action Plan, 2007-2010) Based on the statement in the National Higher Education Plan 2007-2010, being innovative is one of the attributes that a teacher should have in order to nurture first class mentality among their students. UNESCO has defined innovation as the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organizational method in business practice, workplace organization or external relations (cited in Faizah Abd Majid). Thus a teacher who is innovative must be dare to be different and be open to new ideas such as innovating a curriculum, an app, a social media platform for learning, an existing instructional strategies or something else that is related with the educational areas. One of the examples of innovation is the project-based learning. Learning through projects is innovative compared to the traditional method of teaching such as sit-and get, drill-and-kill, teacher-led and textbook-sourced instruction. However, the report from NEAC (2010) concludes that creativity and innovation has yet to reach comfortable level in Malaysia. According to the report, “…Efforts to innovate and create have been insufficient. The weak track record of domestic innovation in Malaysia is reflected by the comparatively low number of researchers” (NEAC, 2010, pp. 5  - 6 cited in Faizah Abd Majid). Some of the challenges in innovation for education are in some areas such as research and development, academia, internalization, learning and teaching and also graduate employability (Academia.edu, 2014). Firstly, our innovation management has lack of high impact research in research and development area. The heavy workloads of the  educators‟ in school management is one of the reason of teacher being uninterested to be innovative teachers. Another reason of lacking in high impact research in our education nowadays is because of the lack research knowledge. The students in higher education also have difficulty in searching for research done by researchers in Malaysia. So, the education management needs to encourage the educators and collages to take an active part in the educational research. Secondly, our education system in Malaysia also has limited number of competent experts. According to Majlis Penyelidikan dan Kemajuan Sains Negara , Malaysia needs a workforce of 493,830 people in RSE by 2020 to support the current government initiatives in the Economic Transformation Program, the Government Transformation Program and the New Economic Model (MyForesight, 2013 in Selvaraj Grapragasem, Anbalagan Krishnan & Azlin Norhaini Mansor, 2014). Thus, lack of competent and qualified academic staff is one of the challenges in our education system. Thirdly, in form of internalization in education, our education system is still lack of exposures and resources to embrace “education without borders”. What is meant by education without borders is the integration of information and communications technology (ICT) in teaching and learning. Our educators are having low level of confidence in using ICT and also incompetence to integrate ICT in the classroom. Though ICT is part of the curriculum in teacher training colleges the teachers have not achieved sufficient confidence when it comes to integrating it in teaching (Mahani, 2006 & Thang, et al. 2010 in Hazri Jamil, Nordin  Abd. Razak, Reena Raju and Abdul Rashid Mohamed). Fourth, in learning and teaching, our education system also have problem in lack of innovative/contemporary approaches to research, teaching and learning. During the year 2008 there were more than 54,000 students in Year 1 (about 30% of the total student population) who did not meet the literacy level and an estimated 117, 000 (24%) students in Year 4 who did not reach the targeted numeracy standards ( National Key Results Areas, 2010 in Hazri Jamil, Nordin Abd. Razak, Reena Raju and Abdul Rashid Mohamed). Thus, it is a challenge for the teacher to be innovative in the teaching and learning session in order to overcome the Numeracy and Literacy problem. Teachers need to change their teaching approaches from traditional method to more student-centered, technology as medium and also project-based learning. Fifth, the graduate employability is also one of the challenges in education as there is the need for more quality education programs to meet market demands. (Hrm ASIA, 2012 in Selvaraj Grapragasem, Anbalagan Krishnan & Azlin Norhaini  Mansor, 2014) reports that some 150,0 00 people graduate from Malaysia‟s universities each year, but many of them fail to secure a job. Thus, it is challenging to produce an innovative education because of the issue of unemployment among Malaysian graduates. Furthermore, changes in education are also one of the challenges in education faced by the school community. There are three changes in education that I would like to elaborate on which are changes in teaching and learning, language proficiency and knowledge-based society. Firstly, teaching and learning is one of the strategies included in National Higher Education Strategic Plan (NHEAP) 2007-2010. In order to ensure a stable a strong institution, dynamic and relevant curricula and pedagogy are needed. Of course, effective pedagogy needs an effective delivery system. Textbooks are no longer considered as an important element of knowledge acquisition in students. Learning activities are done through electronic media, whereby information and communication technology (ICT) has become main means of imparting knowledge and gathering information. Thus, the changes of delivery systems in our pedagogy is one of the challenges in education that a teacher need to face. It is a positive transformation as ICT has a lot of benefit to both teachers and students. According to (Oliver, 2002 in Selvaraj Grapragasem, Anbalagan Krishnan & Azlin Norhaini Mansor, 2014 ), ICT has actually changed students‟ learning behaviour, helping to move from content-centered curricula to competency-based curricula, and from teacher-centered to student-centered forms of delivery. Next, as the country moves into a new era of globalization in education, the government has placed much emphasized on bilingual proficiency among students. According to the students‟ aspirations is Mal aysian Education Blueprint 2013  –  2025, every child will be at minimum operationally proficient in Bahasa Malaysia as the national language and language of unity, and English as the international language of communication. It means that upon leaving school, the student should be able to work in both Bahasa Malaysia and English environment. Therefore, teachers in schools play an important role to ensure the students able to become proficient in both languages. Furthermore, producing a knowledge-based society is another change in our curriculum that had become a challenge to the educators. Malaysia has certainly moved towards a knowledge-based society since the transformation of its education system into a more holistic approach through the introduction of various initiatives and approaches in the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025, the NHEAP 2007-2010, and the NHESP beyond 2020. As the former Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad said in 2001:
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