Estuary Notes

1. Chapter 12 Estuaries Where Rivers meet the Sea 2. 3. Estuaries <ul><li>Semi-enclosed areas where fresh water and seawater meet and mix.…
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  • 1. Chapter 12 Estuaries Where Rivers meet the Sea
  • 2.
  • 3. Estuaries <ul><li>Semi-enclosed areas where fresh water and seawater meet and mix. </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction of land and sea! </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the most productive environments on earth! </li></ul><ul><li>Most affected by humans! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harbors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Value of Estuaries <ul><li>Protected fertile habitat – Home for many! </li></ul><ul><li>Vital breeding and feeding grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Cities built near estuaries because of great fishing. (shrimp and crab) </li></ul>
  • 5. Cape Hatteras Estuary In N. Carolina
  • 6. Milford Sound in New Zealand is a fjord – a finger-like inlet surrounded by sheer walls with a shallow entrance and deep basin resulting in stagnant, oxygen-depleted deep water.
  • 7. 4 Types of Estuaries <ul><li>Drowned River Valleys or Coastal Plain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea invaded lowlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chesapeake Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bar-built </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand builds up to form sand bars and barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Along Texas coast of Gulf of Mexico </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. 4 Types of Estuaries <ul><li>Tectonic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land sinks or earth moves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fjords – Glacier Carved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retreating glaciers cut deep valleys that are partially submerged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common near Alaska </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. an IDEAL ESTUARY Isohaline are the same salt content water. How many are there?
  • 10. High Tide Low Tide The Salt wedge moves in and out with the tide
  • 11. Physical Characteristics of Estuaries <ul><li>Salinity in a salt wedge </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers carry nutrients into estuary by size and weight. Which travels farther? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mud = silt and clay high in nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anoxic = low oxygen in mud b/c bacteria respiration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic bacteria thrive in mud. Why? </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Physical Characteristics of Estuaries <ul><li>Water temp varies. Why? When? So? </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed organisms during low tides. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun, Drying out, Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low water clarity causes what problem? </li></ul>
  • 13. Types of species living in an idealized estuary in relation to salinity. The width of the bars = relative numbers of species
  • 14. The body fluids of estuarine animals responds in various ways to the salinity of the water. Osmoregulator = blood salinity stays the same. Osmoconformer=blood salinity will change with the water salinity.
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  • 16. Look at the shallow roots of this mangrove tree reaching above the mud to get oxygen. Why does mud not have much oxygen in it?
  • 17. Cordgrass is an important component of salt water marshes
  • 18. Pickle Weed is a common succulent plant in salt marshes around the world.
  • 19. The Atlantic menhaden is an important commercial fish spawn offshore and larvae drift with tides into the estuary to grow.
  • 20. The California horn snail is abundant on mudflats
  • 21. Mudflat animals in temperate estuaries
  • 22. Fiddler on the Mud What is this behavior for?
  • 23.
  • 24. The daily tides play a crucial role in salt marshes. They help circulate detritus and nutrients and expose mudflat organisms to predation by shorebirds and other animals
  • 25. A salt marsh near Atlantic Beach, NC. Many of these types of marshes have been filled in and destroyed.
  • 26. A mudskipper from the mudflats of a mangrove forest in New Guinea. Its eyes can see in air.
  • 27. An Oyster reef formed by the eastern oyster near Beaufort, NC are exposed at low tide.
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