European Union Cultural Policy_Music as the Key to European Integration

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    European Union Cultural Policy: Music as the Key to European Integration 30 April 2010   Eighth European Community Studies Association – Canada Biennial Conference: “Whither Europe?” Victoria, BC   Reneé Gordon Holley Graduate Student, Musicology University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 1003 S. Mattis Ave., Apt. 1-2 Champaign, IL 61821  Holley 2 Introduction   In June 2010, the Ruhr region of Germany is hosting a province-wide day of song, where  pre-selected European and international choirs are singing together, encouraging tourists and residents to join them in song. This “Day of Song” is one of thousands of activities associated with the European Union’s 2010 Capital of Culture program in Essen. Although the success of this event can not yet be measured, it stands as a clear example of how European Union (EU) officials and program designers use music and musical events to accomplish policy goals, including establishing an ever closer union. Drawing from Europe’s history as the birthplace of musical masters such as Monteverdi, Handel, Beethoven and Chopin, the EU continues to develop and create narratives of common cultural heritage and progress relating these masters, as well as popular and folk music contributions, to its cultural policy. The revised Preamble of the Treaty on European Union highlights the role of culture in the project of a unified Europe. The new second recital of the Treaty on European Union Preamble: “DRAWING INSPIRATION from the cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe, from which have developed the universal values of the inviolable and inalienable rights of the human person, freedom, democracy, equality and the rule of law,” provides the framework for understanding music’s contribution to culture and how this artistic medium is mobilized to further promote EU values ( Treaty of Lisbon  2007, Article 1). To better understand the relationship of music to the European Union, this paper attempts to answer two questions. First, how does the EU utilize music to accomplish its goal to become an ever closer union, and second, is the EU successful in this undertaking? To answer these questions, this paper examines both official European legislation and recent literature on cultural  policies to determine the way in which music has contributed to EU cultural policy. By scrutinizing the EU definition of culture as compared to Raymond Williams’ treatment of culture in modernity and highlighting music’s social and political significance in Europe, this paper offers four examples of music’s role in policies and programs that negotiate the meanings of culture and serve to promote the ideology of the EU. The Culture Problem Definitions, or delineations, of culture used in EU cultural policy provide an understanding of what constitutes culture, not to mention a common culture. Such a task, however, is daunting at best. Many have noted the problematic character of culture. In a study on EU speeches, Marko Kananen notes that “politicians only state that European identity is based on a common culture, but only rarely is this culture clarified further” (2008, 171). Raymond Williams, in his work  Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society (1983), states, “Culture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language” (87). After tracing the history of the term, Williams settles for three categories of usage for culture. Culture can refer to (i) the independent and abstract noun which describes a general process of intellectual, spiritual and aesthetic development, from the [eighteenth century]; (ii) the independent noun, whether used generally or specifically, which indicates a particular way of life, whether of a people, a period, a group, or humanity in general, from Herder and Klemm. But we have also to recognize (iii) the independent and abstract noun which describes the works and practices of intellectual and especially artistic activity. (Ibid., 90) In the EU context, examples of each of these types of culture would include (i) reference to the  process of becoming cultured, (ii) identification of the habits and heritage of any one European group as a culture, and (iii) the products and practices of a particular industry, such as music.  Holley 3 Several EU sources problematize the definition of culture, but most conclude that their parameters for defining culture are ultimately unsatisfactory. In The Economy of Culture in Europe , a report prepared for the Directorate-General for Education and Culture, the pragmatic delineation of culture roughly resembles that of Williams’. Culture can be approached as art, explained as “us[ing] the agrarian metaphor to describe the work completed with the ‘mind’” and “highly subjective as it includes a quality evaluation of what art is or is not;” as “a set of attitudes, beliefs, customs, values and practices” shared by a group; or as a means to qualify what activities are included in the particular cultural sector (  Economy  2006, 44). This description of culture has been dissected to better suit an organization of economies of culture. For the first time in 2007, the European Commission statistics generator, Eurostat,  produced a pocketbook on cultural statistics. Because a specific definition of culture is necessary to produce such a report, the European Leadership Group (LEG) provided a working definition in a 2000 Eurostat Working Paper. The study states that, to express culture and cultural relationships in statistics, various cultural activities must be organized in the NACE system, or Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community model. As definitions of culture differ by country, a common classification is necessary to compile and compare statistics from different surveys and statistics sources within the EU. The definition of culture informing the Eurostat pocketbook followed some proscriptions of the UNESCO definition, notably excluding the areas of sport, games, nature and the environment. Areas of cultural activities are organized among eight domains: artistic and monumental heritage, archives, libraries, book and press, visual arts, architecture, performing arts, and audio and audiovisual media/multimedia; and six functions: preservation, creation,  production, dissemination, trade/sales, and education (  Eurostat Working Paper 2000, 24, 25). Cross-referencing the domains and functions of performing arts, Table 1 provides the fields in which music may appear in EU cultural policy. 1  When examining this framework, music most often appears in the context of musical instruments, musician employment, and as an object represented by sound recordings. Indeed, the limited consideration given to all the diverse functions of cultural domains excludes details necessary for understanding the impact of music in EU cultural policy. Extrapolating from the table, functions one might consider significant for or relating to the domain of music as performing art include the preservation and display of historical musical instruments and manuscripts and access to collections of musical scores, recordings and correspondence and materials of composers in libraries and archives. This organizational framework also overlooks the complicated relationship between musician/performer/artist and the recording industry. The music industry strongly links album sales with other activities listed under the domain of the performing arts. Popular artists, in particular, could  belong to both the performing arts and audiovisual domains of culture. Despite the challenge of defining culture, placing music within that framework and identifying culture’s common European components, this early statistical study and report provide information for further study. As cultural statistical analysis becomes more sophisticated, these data are intended to help shape and evaluate EU cultural policy.  1  Table data reproduced from the  Eurostat Working Paper 2000, 26.  T  a  b l   e 1  : T h  e  c l   a  s  s i  f  i   c  a  t  i   on of   c  ul   t   ur  a l   a  c  t  i   vi   t  i   e  s  a n d  t  h  e i  r  c  or r  e  s  p on d  e n c  e  wi   t  h  NA C E   Preservation Creation Production Dissemination Trade / sales Education Cultural Heritage - M.H. - Museum - Archaeological sites - Others Activities for the  protection of monuments Museums activities Archaeological activities Other heritage-related activities Event organising and awareness-raising Educational activities Archives General and specialised archives Event organising and awareness-raising Idem Libraries Conservation and reading libraries Event organising and awareness-raising Idem Books and press - books -press Creation of literary works Drafting of articles for newspapers and  periodicals Production of books  Newspaper and periodical  production Activities of press agencies Activities of literary agents Organisation of festivals and fairs for books / reading Event organising and awareness-raising Trade/sales in books Trade/sales in press  publications Idem Visual arts - Visual arts (inc. design) - Photography - Multidisciplinary Restoration Creation of visual works Production of visual work (publication of printed reproductions, production of casts, etc…) Exhibitions of visual works Organisation of festivals Event organising and awareness-raising Trade/sales in visual works (art galleries) Trade/sales in reproductions and casts Idem Architecture Architectural creation (activities of firms of architects) Idem Performing arts - Music - Dance - Musical theatre - Theatre -Multidisciplinary - Other performing arts Creation of: musical works choreographic works musical theatre works drama theatre works, etc. Production of live entertainment Activities of orchestras, theatre, opera, dance companies, etc. Services linked to production of live entertainment (inc. artistic agents) Dissemination of activities of concert halls, dance theatres, musical theatres, drama theatres, etc. Organisation of festivals music, dance, theatre, … Event organising and awareness-raising Idem Audio and audiovisual/multimedia - film - radio - television - video - sound recordings - multimedia Creation of cinematographic works and audio-visual (non-cinema) works Creation of multimedia works Film production for cinema Film production (non-cinema) Production of radio  programmes Production of television  programmes Production of sound and audio-visual recordings Production of multimedia works Film distribution Cinema management Organisation of festivals Radio broadcasting Television broadcasting Trade/sales in sound and audio-visual recordings Trade/sales in multimedia works Idem
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