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Exp-05 ASTM Distillation and Reid vapor pressure

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Exp-05 ASTM Distillation and Reid vapor pressure
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   Distillation of Petroleum Products for Petrol  ASTM D 86-97 Summary   T hese tests were carried out for motor fuels, natural gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, gas oils andsimilar petroleum product. ASTM distillation is a simple distillation using equipment and procedure, which are rigorously specified in the ASTM book of standards. Virtually nofractionation was occured in this distillation. The hydrocarbons in the oil did not distil out inthe order of their boiling points but as successively higher and higher boiling mitures. Thiseperiment was useful for determining the boiling range of an oil sample since it helps toindicate the initial boiling point, intermediate points and the end point. !ere, the totalrecovery was #$ at %&' ( ).  Scope This method covers the distillation of motor gasoline*s, aviation turbine fuels special boiling point sprits, naphtha, white sprit, kerosene, gas oils, distillate fuel oils and similar petroleum product. Limitation +or the distillation of the aviation turbine fuel and other products of such wide boiling rangethat the low distillation thermometer specified for this eperiment is inadequate, this methodin that case may be substitute by high distillation thermometer Definitions ã Initial Boiling Point  - The thermometer reading that isobserved at the instant that the frst drop o condensatealls rom the lower end o the condenser tube. ã End Point or Final Boiling point  - The maximumthermometer reading obtained during the test. This usuallyoccurs ater the evaporation o all liquid rom the bottom o the ask. ã Dry Point  - The thermometer reading that is observed atthe instant the last drop o liquid evaporates rom thelowest point in the ask. Any drops or flm o liquid on theside o the ask or on the thermometer are disregarded. ã Decomposition Point  - The thermometer reading thatcoincides with the frst indication o thermal decompositiono the liquid in the ask.  ã Percent Recovered  - The olume in millimeters o condensate observed in the receiving graduate! inconnection with the simultaneous thermometer reading. ã Percent Recovery   - The maximum recovered. ã Percent Total Recovery   - The combined percent recoveryand residue in the ask. ã Percent Loss  - ## minus the percent total recovery. ã Percent Residue  - The percent total recovery minuspercent recovery or the volume o residue in millimeters i measured directly. ã Percent Evaporated  - The sum o the percent recoveredand the percent loss. ã  Warm up period  $ the time required to develop ully theengine power. Significance  istillation of petroleum products determines the boiling range of an oilsample and indicates the initial boiling point, intermediate point and end point. The end points rather than the dry point is intended for general use. The dry point may be inconnection with special purpose naphtha such as used in the paint industry. Also it should be  substituted for the end point whenever the sample is of such a nature that the precision of theend point cannot consistently meet the requirements. ASTM Distillation Characteristics All fractions of oil are specified by ASTM distillation only. The nature of distillation rangeestimated by ASTM -#& is of significance with regard to burning characteristics. ($ boiling point reveals the flash point, which in turn indicates the ease of ignition, speciallywhen kerosene is used in pump stoves, this plays a very important role in continuous supportof flame. /f ($ boiling point is low then vapor losses are very high and vapor locking ishigh. Mid boiling range contributes towards viscosity. 0ften flare up in oil a heater isobserved in mid boiling range. 1ate of acceleration after starting up is best 2udged by the midregion boiling range. &($ distillation ensures steady performance in oil heaters. 3(-&($ of  boiling point range gives information on warm up period and good evaporation. /f the range of boiling point ishigh gasoline will not be evaporating normally. /f ($ boiling is high, then crank casedilution also increases, as the fuel is not volatile at working condition of carburetor.  +45   6arm up   7ase of period   crank case dilution  temperature starting  
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