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Facility Design

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    101 Security for Business Professionals. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800565-1.00005-3 Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Facility Security Design In the event that your organization is able to construct or renovate an existing facility for  your business, there are many safety and security measures that should be considered as  you move through the design and construction phases of the project. By including these measures during the initial planning and design, not only will you increase the ability of  your organization to improve its safety and security program but you will also save a great many costs over those that would be incurred by implementing these measures once the building has been completed.Many of the safety and security measures that result in the greatest cost savings when including these improvements during construction include most of the physical secu-rity measures discussed in Chapter 6. These security improvements include perimeter security measures such as walls, fencing, and landscaping features such as berms which are engineered earthen features designed to deny access to vehicles or personnel. Along  with these physical security measures, which can be cost-effective when included during the design and construction of a facility, are some of the hardware-oriented information security measures, which were covered in Chapter 7. Although many information secu-rity measures can be incorporated at any phase in a building’s construction with minimal impact on cost, there are some specific items that should be included in your design and planning for the facility. These include design considerations regarding the server room  where you will store your information systems equipment, hardened and secure wiring for your information systems, and wireless networks. Of particular note, the design of a server room is critical, and, by looking at several considerations regarding the design and location of this space, you will save money and increase the reliability of your organiza-tion’s information system in the long run. One consideration is the location and size of the area that will house your organization’s servers and information systems. This area should be designed so that it is large enough to include all of the servers, wires, cables, and other necessary equipment—not only at the time of construction of the building, but in the future as your organization grows. One critical consideration in the design of any area designated to store your information systems is to provide adequate cooling capac-ity. A proper server room must stay cool and dry in order to keep all of the equipment from overheating, and in order to accomplish this there are several different options. One option is to install a raised floor to distribute cooling; another option is to use in-row cooling units. Yet another option, if possible within the layout of your building, would be to consider a higher ceiling than normal (12–18 ft) when designing the server room area to assist with cooling. Another consideration is to ensure the area will be large enough to accommodate any required maintenance of all equipment located in the room. This may include additional space for storage racks that could contain all of the hardware placed in the room and provide improved access. The final consideration in planning  102 SECURITY FOR BUSINESS PROFESSIONALSa server area and other information systems is to ensure the room has sufficient physi-cal security measures, to include reinforced walls and doors, access control (e.g., card swipe or biometrics), alarms, and cameras. As discussed, the type of network that you are planning to use in your new facility can also be incorporated into the overall building design. For example, if you know that you will be using a wireless network, as opposed to using wires and cabling, this decision can be included in the planning and design of the facility. Since a wireless network is dependent upon the equipment but does not require  wiring throughout the building, including this early in the planning and design phases of construction will save a great deal of money. Whatever security measures you consider during the planning and design of any facility should incorporate the principle of defense in depth (this principle, along with the other security principles, was covered in detail in Chapter 2). Defense in depth will help to ensure that you are including redundant secu-rity measures along each layer in your overall security design in order to better protect  your organization’s critical resources. Although it may require some foresight in the planning and design phases of your com-pany’s facility construction, working through the physical and information security mea-sures that should be included will save resources and provide a better building for you and  your employees. 5.1 Crime Prevention through Environmental Design To assist in determining what security measures should be incorporated into the building’s design, there is an established method termed Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) with which many architects and construction manag-ers are familiar. The goal of CPTED is to reduce opportunities for crime to occur by using physical design features that discourage crime, while at the same time encouraging legitimate use of the environment. CPTED is a good concept for businesses, since the goal is to design facilities that offer necessary protection of the building and its occu-pants without resorting to the “prison camp” approach that can sometimes be seen in high-security buildings. The main idea behind CPTED is to integrate security into the overall design, reducing the negative visual impact that many security measures can provide; an example is readily apparent when one considers the different impacts of an attractive wooden fence vs the use of military-style concertina wire. As with the incor-poration of any security measure early in the design and planning phase, CPTED is also cost-effective, since hardware applications are made during facility construction rather than added at a later date.The following concepts comprise the main components of CPTED: ã Defensible space ã Territoriality  ã Surveillance ã Lighting   Chapter 5   ã Facility Security Design 103 ã Landscaping  ã Physical security [1]  We will look at each of these areas over the next few sections. 5.1.1 Defensible Space To provide maximum security and control over an area, it should first be divided into smaller, clearly defined areas or zones, which describe the defensible space. These zones then become the focal points for the application of various CPTED elements. To dif-ferentiate between the level of security necessary in various areas, they are designated as public, semi-private, or private. Within CPTED, this designation defines the accept-able use of each zone and determines who is allowed authorized entry under certain circumstances. ã Public zones are generally open to anyone and are the least secure of the three zones. ã Semi-private zones are areas that are designed to create a buffer between public and private zones and may serve as common use spaces, such as interior courtyards.  Although they are accessible to the public, they are typically set off from a public zone by some type of obstruction or barrier. ã Private zones are areas that require restricted entry. These areas have controlled access, and entry is limited to specific individuals or groups. Physical or symbolic barriers divide the zones within CPTED. Physical barriers, as the name implies, are substantial in nature and physically prevent movement. Examples of physical barriers include fencing, some forms of landscaping, and locked doors. Symbolic barriers are less tangible in that they do not actually prevent physical movement. Instead, they are meant only to define a boundary between zones. Examples of symbolic barri-ers include low decorative fencing, flower beds, signs, or changes in sidewalk patterns or materials. 5.1.2 Territoriality Territoriality describes an individual’s perception of, and relationship with, that individ-ual’s environment. A strong sense of territoriality promotes security awareness among employees by encouraging them to take control of their environment and defend it against attack. This sense of territoriality greatly increases the security awareness among the employees in a given area, and can be fostered through architecture that allows easy identification of certain areas as the exclusive domain of a particular individual, team, or group. Although it is easier to establish a sense of territoriality in the initial design of a facility, this concept can be promoted by using your organization’s existing facility to group teams and sections within specifically designated rooms and areas. Through the use of your cur-rent building’s layout, furniture, and partitions, you may be able to provide your employ-ees with their own areas and begin to establish territoriality and ownership.  104 SECURITY FOR BUSINESS PROFESSIONALS 5.1.3 Surveillance Surveillance is the principal weapon for protecting defensible space. Potential criminals are less likely to act when there is a high risk that their actions will be witnessed. Environ-ments in which your own authorized employees can exercise a high degree of visual con-trol increase the likelihood of criminal acts being observed and reported. There are two types of surveillance within CPTED: informal and formal.Opportunities for informal or natural surveillance occur as a direct result of architec-tural design. Designs that incorporate open areas can minimize visual obstacles and elimi-nate concealment for potential assailants, which, in turn provides protection against crime. These open designs have the added benefit that employees will generally feel safer when they can easily see and be seen. Informal surveillance also utilizes the CPTED concept of defensible space, since the transition zones between areas provide both the occupant and intruder clear and definite points of reference to identify attempts for unauthor-ized entry. For your employees, these boundaries better highlight an intruder’s entrance into restricted space, which in turn draws attention to the unauthorized individual and increases the ability for employees to raise the alarm. For intruders, entering restricted space that is clearly identified will spotlight their actions, elevate their anxiety levels, and greatly increase their risk of being discovered and apprehended.Formal surveillance methods describe commonly used security measures, such as closed-circuit television, electronic monitoring, fixed guard posts, and organized security patrols.  Within CPTED, these methods are normally used only when natural surveillance alone cannot sufficiently protect an area. Some areas that normally require formal surveillance methods include public and semi-private zones that are concealed from view, areas that experience regular periods of isolation or inactivity, elevators, interior corridors, parking lots, public areas of buildings accessible after business hours, and exterior pedestrian pathways. 5.1.4 Lighting Good lighting is one of the most effective crime deterrents and, when properly used, can discourage criminal activity, enhance natural surveillance opportunities, and reduce apprehension and fear among employees. Many of the objectives of security lighting will be discussed in Chapter 6; however, with regard to CPTED, lighting can also play a part in creating a feeling of territoriality. Lighting can influence individuals’ feelings about their environment from an aesthetic as well as a safety standpoint—a bright and cheerful envi-ronment is much more pleasing than one that appears dark and lifeless. Ultimately, posi-tive aspects gained from proper lighting can generate a good feeling about your employees’ environment, which then helps your employees to develop a sense of pride and ownership and leads to increased security awareness. 5.1.5 Landscaping Landscaping design, like architectural design, plays a significant role in CPTED due to its ver-satility and ability to perform a variety of design functions. As a symbolic barrier, landscaping
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