Fake news

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    Fake news   From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the type of hoax. For the online type and the websites that specialize in it, see Fake news website. For other uses, see Fake news (disambiguation).    Reporters with various forms of fake news from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr Opper     Fake news  is a type of  yellow journalism or  propaganda that consists of   deliberate misinformation or  hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media. [1][2]  This false information is mainly distributed by social media, but is periodically circulated through mainstream media. [3]  Fake news is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically, [4][5][6]  often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership, online sharing, and Internet click revenue. In the latter case, it is similar to sensational online clickbait  headlines and relies on advertising revenue generated from this activity, regardless of the veracity of the published stories. [4]  Intentionally misleading and deceptive fake news is different from obvious satire or  parody,    which is intended to amuse rather than mislead its audience. The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to   attract viewers to their websites is necessary to general online advertising revenue. If publishing a story with false content attracts users, it may be worthy of producing in order to benefit advertisers and ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization, and the popularity of  social media [1] , primarily the Facebook News Feed [1] , have all been implicated in the spread of fake news, [4][7]  which has come to provide competition for legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections. [8]  Fake news also undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories. [9]   An analysis by Buzzfeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20   news stories on the election from 19 major media outlets. [10]  Anonymously-hosted fake news websites [1]  lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for  libel. [11]   Contents [hide] ã  1Definition   ã  2Identifying  ã  3Historical examples  o  3.1 Ancient  o  3.2Medieval  o  3.3Early modern period  o  3.419th century  o  3.520th century  ã  421st century  o  4.1In mainstream media  o  4.2On the internet  o  4.3Response  ã  5Fake news by country  o  5.1 Australia  o  5.2 Austria  o  5.3Brazil  o  5.4Canada  o  5.5Czech Republic  o  5.6China  o  5.7Finland  o  5.8France  o  5.9Germany  o  5.10India  o  5.11Indonesia  o  5.12Israel/Palestine  o  5.13Italy  o  5.14Mexico  o  5.15Myanmar   o  5.16Pakistan  o  5.17Philippines  o  5.18Poland  o  5.19Russia  o  5.20Singapore  o  5.21South Africa  o  5.22South Korea  o  5.23Spain  o  5.24Sweden  o  5.25Syria  o  5.26Taiwan  o  5.27Ukraine  o  5.28United Kingdom  o  5.29United States  ã  6See also  ã  7References  ã  8Further reading  Definition Fake news  is a neologism [1][12]  often used to refer to fabricated news. [13]  This type of news, found in   traditional news, social media [13]  or  fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate. [14]  Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS  60 Minutes , said his show considers fake news to be stories that are provably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal]  in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people . These stories can not only be found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition. [15]  He did not include fake news that is invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like . Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes  producer said, What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie. [16]  The intention and purpose behind fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may in fact be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also   be fake news. [4]  Claire Wardle of   First Draft News  identifies seven types of fake news: [17]  1. satire or parody ( no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool ) 2. false connection ( when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content ) 3. misleading content ( misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual ) 4. false context ( when genuine content is shared with false contextual information ) 5. imposter content ( when genuine sources are impersonated with false, made-up sources) 6. manipulated content ( when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive , as with a doctored photo) 7. fabricated content ( new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm ) In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or  mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust. [18][19][20][21]  In   January 2017 the United Kingdom House of Commonsconducted a parliamentary inquiry into the   growing phenomenon of fake news . [22]   Identifying Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and   Institutions   The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in   diagram form (pictured at right)  to assist people in recognizing fake news. [23]  These points have been corroborated by experts in the cognitive science of information processing. [24] Its main points are: 1. Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose) 2. Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story) 3. Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible) 4. Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims) 5. Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date) 6. Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire)  7. Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgement) 8. Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge). The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training and has published a code of principles. [25]  In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations. [26] One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal  The Conversation , created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial   oversight . [27]  Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called media literacy , the course provides training in journalism in the new information society. [28]   Historical examples  Ancient Roman politician and general Mark Antony killed himself because of misinformation. [29]     In the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate. [30]  
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