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(FCE-Grammar) Linking Words

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  (FCE- Grammar) Linking Words Linking words show the logical relationship between sentences or parts of a sentence.  1. Positive Addition  and   (и, а)  And is used to connect words or phrases.  And may be used to connect two independent clauses. ã Steve and his friends are coming to dinner. ã He is waving his arms and shoutingat us. ã It was raining hard, and there was a strong wind.  2. both... and   (как... так и) either.....or (или....или) both/either/neither +of (тот или другой, один издвух, любой из двух)    Affirmative Areeme!t  ã  either   (и тот и другой) ã  too (то #, так #$ в кон%# &р#дло #ни') eative Areeme!t  ã  neither   (ни тот нидругой) ã  eithe r (то #, так #$ в кон%#&р#дло #ни') ã  both - н# у&отр#бл'#т' вотри%ат#л*ной+ор# We use both , neither, either when weare talking about two things.   wo sub!ects connected by both.....and take a plural verb.  Both noun and noun.#o not use both /both...and...  in negativesentences. $se neither % neither...nor...  Either/neither    of are singular if they arenot used with  or or nor . either + !-!  + or +  /0ra0 !-! +  /0ra0 ver1 either + !-!  + or +  2i!0ar    !-! +  2i!0ar    ver1   both either + of neither   the%these%  m343-r...5!-! When we use both/ either  /neither with of you always need &the,these, those, my, our, his...'.(ou cannotsay )both of restaurants*+ you have to say)both of the restaurants % both of theserestaurants. ã  Both  my mother and my sister are  here. ã  Both  restaurants are very good. ã  Neither   restaurant is epensive. ã We can go to either restaurant. ã he research pro!ect will take both  time and   money. ã  Either   ohn or   his friend s   are goingto the beach today. ã  Either   ohn  or   ill is going to the  beach today. ã  Both of   these restaurants are very good. ã  Neither of the restaurants we went to was /were-0m.1.2 epensive. ã  Neither of   them came to the meeting. ã We can go to either of   those restaurants. ã  Neither    of the books is  eactly whatI want. ã If either of   you  takes  a vocation now , we will not be able to finish the work. ã We accepted neither   offer. ã here were chairs on either   side of the table.  3. too  (то #, так #) also (так #) as well (так #) as well as (так # как,н# тол*ко.....но итак #.......) either (6 7так #8  отри%ат#л*н9 глаголо  Also, as well, too are used with a similar meaning.sub!ect negative verb either  /instead of   too / also 2  As well   and too come at the end of theclause when you are adding somethingto a list of things that you gave in the previous sentence. ut also  comes in themiddle of a clause3 before the verb , after an auiliary, modal or to be.  Also /Too / As well are not used with two negative statements / use either 2 ã ill likes golf and om likes golf  too . ã ill would en!oy a game and om would too . ã I haven*t seen him either . ã He didn*t like the book+ I didn*t either  . ã She doesn*t smoke. She doesn*t drink either  . ã 4rank speaks 4rench. He also speaks 5erman. ã I can also  play the piano. ã We have also decided to get a new car. ã & I*m going to get bread, cheese,  tea, and sugar'. &6an you get somemilk as well  7' ã She*s got a car as well as  a motorbike.  . besides (  89:;< =:>:2 anyway  ( во в'колу:а#) moreover  (бол## того) what is more  ( :то бол##) in addition (to)  ( в до&олн#нии к, к тоу #)  furthermore ( кро# того, к тоу #) hese epressions are used to add information to what has already been said.  Anyway / Besides are used at the  beginning of a sentence when you have given one reason for doing smth and you want to add another.  Besides ? in addition to  Moreover / furthermore / in   addition  ? also. hey are used at the beginning of a sentence to add a more important fact than the one that you gave in the  previous sentence.  n addition to / besides  are used as  prepositions. hey are followed by an ob!ect, not a clause. ã I hate asking for a pay rise.  Anyway , there*s no point. ã I don*t really need a new car.  Besides , I can*t afford one. ã he city provides many cultural opportunities. It has an ecellent art museum.  Moreover / !urthermore/ n addition  , it has a fine symphony orchestra. ã he city provides many cultural opportunities.  n addition to /     Besides an ecellent art museum, it has a fine symphony orchestra. ã  Besides  doing the cooking I look after the garden.  !. egative Addition neither... nor  ...(ни.....ни) nor   (так # н#) not only...but also....  ( н# тол*ко....но так # и...) neither   (так # н#, ни тот ни другой)  Nether...nor / not only...but    also...   singular noun singular verb  Nether...nor / not only...but    also...    plural noun plural verb  Neither takes an affirmative verb. ã  Neither ohn nor his friend s   are  going to the beach today. ã  Neither ohn nor   ill is  going to the beach today. ã  Not only  my mother but also  my sister   is  here. ã  Not only  my sister but also  my  parent s   are  here.  #. Contrast while  ( в то вр#' как) whereas  (тогда как) hile  and whereas  are used to showclear contrast between two sub!ectswithin one sentence. hey are followed by a clause. ã @ary is rich, while  ohn is poor. ã @ary is rich, whereas ohn is poor. ã hereas  @ary is rich, ohn is poor  ã ohn loves playing outdoors all day, while / whereas  Harry likes playingcomputer games.  $. but   (но)  yet ( т# н# #н##, в# #, однако)  still   (т# н# #н##, в# #) but...anywaybut... still  yet... still  But   is used to !oin two words or phraseswhen the second one has the oppositemeaning.hey show contrast /unepected result2 ã It was cold, but   I went swimming anyway. ã It was cold , but   I still   went swimming . ã It was cold,  yet   I still went swimming. ã @ary is rich, but ohn is poor.   %.  Althou#h  (хот') even thou#h  (да #  хот') thou#hbe$ausebe$ause  is used to epress epectedresults+ even thou#h  is used to epressunepected results.  Althou#h  is followed by a clause and acomma. 0fter  Althou#h  we use a  21;e<t 5 ver1 .  Even thou#h  is stronger than although.  Althou#h  can*t be at the end of asentence+ thou#h - can.We use thou#h to mean ) ho&ever'  at theend of a sentence. hink of althou#h  as&before the fact' and however as &after the fact'. ã  Even thou#h / Althou#h / Thou#h  it was cold, I went swimming. ã  Be$ause  I wasn*t tired, I didn*t go to bed. ã We went out althou#h  it was raining. ã  Even thou#h  I wasn*t tired, I went to bed. ã  Althou#h he studied very hard, he didn*t pass the eam. ã He didn*t finish the !ob, eventhou#h  he worked all night. ã he room is very small. It*s Auite  comfortable thou#h .  . in s%ite of   (н#отр' на) des%ite  (н#отр' на) des%ite the fa$t s%ite of the fa$t that.... in spite of % despite =i! in spite of % despite !-! in spite of % despite  /r-!-! in s%ite of & des%ite ã I went swimming des%ite / in s%ite   of the cold weather. ã I went swimming des%ite the fa$t that / in s%ite of the fa$t that   the weather was cold. ã  'es%ite / n s%ite  of her ecellent Aualifications , 6arol didn*t get the  !ob. ã  'es%ite / n s%ite  of havingecellent Aualifications , 6aroldidn*t get the !ob.   1. on the other hand   ( другой торон9) $se this at the beginning of a sentencewhen you have !ust mentioned one sideof an argument 0nd you are going tomention the opposite side. ã @ary is rich. ohn, on the other hand,  is poor. ã  Buclear power is relatively cheap. n the other hand  , you could arguethat it*s not safe.   11. however   (однако, как б9 ни)  nevertheless  (т# н#  #н##) nonetheless  ( т# н#  #н##)  owever and nevertheless link contrasting ideas in t&o  different sentences. ã It was cold.  Nevertheless  , I went swimming. ã I like him very much.  owever /     Nevertheless,  we are very different.  12. Giving E*am+les   for e*am%le  (на&ри#р)  for instan$e  (на&ри#р) for eample ? for instancehese epressions introduce particular eamples to illustrate what has been said.e.g. ? for eamplee.g. ? eempli gratia /Latin2e.g. -0m1eg - r1 ã here are many interesting places tovisit in the city. !or e*am%le , the  botanical garden has numerous displays of plants from all over the world. ã here are many interesting places tovisit in the city. he art museum,  for instan$e , has an ecellent collection of modern paintings.   su$h as  (такой как) lie  (&одобно, как) es%e$ially (ооб#нно) in %arti$ular  (в ооб#нноти) such as ? for eample ã I prefer to wear casual clothes, su$has  !eans and a sweatshirt. ã Some countries, su$h as  raCil and 6anada, are big.  13. Ca,se eason  as  (так как) sin$e (&окол*ку, так как)  As / sin$e  ? because, and they can begina sentence+ they are followed by a clause. ã  in$e  @onday is a holiday, we don*t have to go to work. ã  in$e  you are a good cook and I*m not, you should cook the dinner. ã  As  it was a public holiday, all the shops were shut. ã  As  they live near us, we see them Auite often.   1. be$ause (of)  (&отоу :то, так как, из$за) due to  (из$за, благодар')  Be$ause introduces an adverb clause+ it is followed by a sub!ect and verb.  Be$ause of / due to are phrasal  prepositions + they are followed by a noun ob!ect. ã  Be$ause  the weather was cold, we stayed home. ã  Be$ause of   the cold weather, we stayed home. ã  'ue to  the cold weather, we stayed home. ã  'ue to  the fact that the weather wascold, we stayed home.  ã We stayed home be$ause of   % due to  the cold weather. now that ( т#&#р* когда, &окол*ку) now that ? because now  Now that   is used for present causes of  present or future situations. ã  Now that   the semester is over / ?because the semester is now over2 , I*m going to rest a few days and then take a trip. ã ack lost his !ob.  Now that   he*s unemployed, he can*t pay his bills.  1!.  for this reason  (&о >той &ри:ин#) as a result (of)  (в  р#зул*тат#) as a result of smth. & 1e<a2e -f 2mt? $se as a result of   to say what madesomething happen.$se the sim%le/#ood/obvious reason(that) to eplain why somethinghappened ã Hundreds of people lost their homes as a result of   the war. ã 6on died as the result of   a heart attack. ã We can*t take you all, for the simplereason that there isn*t enough room in the car.  1#. Condition if /whether  (#ли) whether or not even if   6 even thou#h hether or not   epresses the idea thatneither this condition nor that conditionmatters+ the result will be the same.  Even if   gives the idea that a particular condition does not matter. he result willnot change. ã I*m going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not   it is cold. /or 3 whether it is cold or not2 ã I*ve decided to go swimming tomorrow.  Even if   the weather is cold. I*m going to go swimming. ã (ou must go tomorrow if you are ready. ã (ou must go tomorrow even if   you aren't ready. 1$. in $ase (в лу:а#) in $ase of (в лу:а# #ли in the event that  n $ase / in the event that   epress the idea that something probably won*t happen , but it might. It means &if by chance this should happen'.  n $ase  is followed by a present %past tense or should./do not use  @i00   after in $ase 2  n $ase of... & if there is... ã I*ll be at my uncle*s house  in $ase  you /should2 need to reach me. ã  n the event that   you /should2 need to reach me, I*ll be at my uncle*s house. ã I always slept by the phone  in $ase  he rang during the night. ? I always slept by the phone because /I knew2he might ring during the night. ã We bought some food in $ase  om came. ã  n $ase of   fire, please leave the  building as Auickly as possible. ?if there is a fire.  1%. only if   (#ли тол*ко) unless (#ли тол*ко ...н#, разв# тол*ко) unless & if...not & e*$e%t if unless + affirmative verb ? if + negativeWe often use  unless  in warnings3 / eB00 1e0ate !0e22 @e ?rr3. 2 ã I*ll go swimming tomorrow unless  it*s cold. ã #on*t tell Sue what I said unless she asks you. /? ecept if she asks you2 ã I*ll go swimming tomorrow if it isn-t cold. ã (ou*ll get wet  unless  you take your umbrella. ã nless  you start at once you*ll be late ?  f   you don*t start at once you*ll be late.   1. therwise  epresses the idea &if the opposite is true, then there will be a certain result'. ã I always eat breakfast. therwise  , Iget hungry during class. ã (ou*d better hurry. therwise ,

Gen Maths 07

Jul 22, 2017

Otc 19495

Jul 22, 2017
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