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Feasibility and Profitability of Legume Intercrops in Banana

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Feasibility and Profitability of Legume Intercrops in Banana
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  Vol. 33, No. 2, April-June 20151Feasibility and Profitability of Legume Intercrops in Banana * Horticulture College and Research Institute, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University, Anantharajupet, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516105 1 Assistant Professor (Email: lalithaprakash03@gmail.com), 2 Senior Scientist, HRS, Anantapur, 3 Senior Scientist and Head, HRS, Anantharajupet, 4 Associate Dean, HC&RI, Anantharajupet    I J T A  © Serials Publications Lalitha Kadiri 1 , B. Srinivasulu 2 , C. Madhumati 3 , S. Sadarunissa 1 , D. Srinivasa Reddy 1  and K. Gopal 4  ABSTRACT:  A field experiment was conducted at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Anantharajupet, Kadapadistrict of Andhra Pradesh during 2010 -11 to find out feasible and profitable legume intercrops viz . bush beans, dolichos beans,cluster beans, blackgram, greengram, cow pea and field bean in banana. Intercrops significantly influenced the plant height of banana, but the effect was non significant with respect to pseudo stem circumference and number of leaves per plant, number of  fingers per bunch and number of hands per bunch of banana. The study revealed that intercropping banana with cluster bean(48.96 t ha -1  ) showed highest banana equivalent yield which was comparable with that of black gram (48.51 t ha -1  ) followed by field bean (47.76 t ha -1  ) and sole banana (47 t ha -1  ). It was lesser than sole banana in rest of the intercropping combinations. Landequivalent ratio (LER) was greater than one in all the intercropping combinations and were found to be advantageous over solecropping. LER was significantly higher with cluster bean (1.58) followed by black gram (1.49), field bean (1.49), dolichos bean(1.48) and green gram (1.47) followed by cowpea (1.45) and bush beans (1.44). Highest Benefit cost ratio was recorded inintercropping with dolichos bean (2.49) which was on par to that of cluster bean (2.37), black gram (2.37), field bean (2.29),bush beans (2.19), green gram (2.18) followed by cowpea (2.09) and sole banana(1.98).Key words: Banana equivalent yield, banana, growth, intercropping, legumes and LER INTRODUCTION Intercropping, which is the simultaneous cultivationof crops is a predominant cropping system indeveloping countries, it is currently accomplished inmany portions of the world [Francis 5]. It is anadvanced agrotechnique [Thayamini & Brintha 12] ofgrowing two or more crops at the same time duringthe same season on the same piece of land [Geiler etal.,  6]. The system has been shown not only to be moreefficient than sole cropping [Remison, 10] but also toimprove the overall ecology [Adelana, 1]. The mainidea of intercropping is to get improved productivityper unit land area and time, and also impartial and judicious exploitation of land resources and farminginputs including labour. It is eminent to point out thatto produce additional food from less expense of landthrough more efficient use of natural means withminimal impact on the environment in order to meetthe increasing population request intercropping is aviable option. Ijoyah and Fanen [7] further reports thatthe choice of crop combination is key to successfulintercropping. Incompatibility factors such as plantingdensity, root system and nutrient competition needto be considered. Farmers practice intercropping witha wide array of crops, consisting ordinarily of a majorcrop and other insignificant crops. However, it ispertinent that the selection of compatible crops begiven priority as this depends on their growth habit,land, light, water and fertilizer utilization [Thayamini& Brintha, 12]. Intercropping plays a vital role insubsistence food production in both advanced andemerging countries [Adeoye et al ., 2]. Legumes canrelocate fixed nitrogen to intercropped cereals throughtheir common growing period and this N is animperative resource for the cereals [Bhagad et al ., 4].In a general note, Shafik and Soliman [11] put it that  Lalitha Kadiri, B. Srinivasulu, C. Madhumati, S. Sadarunissa, D. Srinivasa Reddy and K. Gopal2International Journal of Tropical Agriculture © Serials Publications, ISSN: 0254-8755 intercropping may lead to overall yield advantage.Inter cropping system is an important approach ofcropping system for increasing crop yield. Plantcompetition is an inevitable phenomenon inintercropping system that reduces intercropproductivity. It also increased land equivalent ratio(LER) to varying degrees.Kadapa district is potential area for productionof banana. In the past few years banana farmers arefacing various problems in respect of increasing costof production per unit area due to high diesel cost,high labour charges, more dependency on chemicalfertilizers, high transportation charges, poor marketfacilities & rate. Under such situation it is necessaryto reduce the banana cost of production per unit areawhich is possible by growing the intercrops. Sincebanana is a long duration and wider spaced crop, thereis a scope to grow short duration narrow spacedintercrops for better utilization of resources andgreater stability of yields. Now a days, the area ofbanana is increasing due to high local demand as wellas high market price. Traditionally, farmers of Kadaparegion cultivate banana as a sole crop. On the otherhand, different short duration vegetable crops werealso cultivated as mono crop. Due to limited plain landsuch intercropping system would be benefit for thefarmers. Farmers often demand for quick return fromtheir crops, so they can get quick return by growingshort duration intercrops crops with banana. As suchtype of investigations in banana is scant the presentstudy was therefore undertaken to in order to examinethe feasibility of growing different short durationlegumes as intercrops in banana.MATERIALS AND METHODSAn effort was made at Horticultural College andResearch Institute, Anantharajupet, Kadapa districtof Andhra Pradesh 2010 -11 to evaluate theperformance of seven legume crops viz . bush beans,dolichos beans, cluster beans, black gram, green gram,cow pea and field bean as intercrops in banana. A fieldexperiment was laid out in Randomized CompleteBlock Design with three dispersed replications forselecting responds. Totally eight different treatmentswere taken in the study, such as T 1 -sole banana, T 2 -banana + bush beans, T 3 - banana + dolichos beans, T 4 - banana + cluster beans, T 5 -banana + blackgram, T 6 -banana + greengram, T 7 - banana +cow pea and T 8 -banana +field bean. Grandnaine banana was plantedat a spacing of 2x2 m to accommodate 3 rows of bushbeans, dolichos beans, cluster beans, black gram, greengram and 2 rows of cow pea and field bean withfollowing spacings, 45x15 cm (cluster bean, dolichosbean, bush beans and field bean) and 30x15cm(cowpea, green gram and black gram). The soil ofthe experimental site was sandy loam with pH 6.0 to7.0, 45 to 50 days old banana seedlings weretransplanted into the respective pits on first week ofSeptember. The seeds of all the intercrops wereplanted between the two rows after planting thebanana. Nutrients were applied for main crop.Additional fertilizers were not applied for intercrops.Standard package of practices were adopted forbanana as well as for intercrops. Necessaryintercultural operations were done to facilitate thegrowth and development of the crops. All intercropswere harvested within 90 days after sowing. The yielddata of intercrops was recorded by total harvestedyield on unit plot basis and then converted into t/hayield. Bush beans, dolichos beans and cluster beanswere harvested for vegetable purpose, black gram,green gram, cow pea and field bean for seed purposeand banana for table purpose. Collected data wereanalyzed by following standard statistical methods.Banana equivalent yield was calculated by convertingyield of intercrops to the yield of banana on the basisof prevailing market prices of the individual crops.The formula is as follows:Banana equivalent yield = Y 0  + (Y i  x P i ) / P 0 Where: Y 0  = Yield of bananaY i  = Yield of intercropP i  = Selling price of intercropP 0  = Selling price of bananaLand Equivalent ratio (LER) = LER of Banana +LER of LegumeWhere: LER of Banana = Intercrop yield of banana/ Sole crop yield of banana LER of Legume = Intercrop yield of legume / Solecrop yield of legumeBenefit Cost Ratio (BCR) = Gross return / Cost ofcultivation RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONGrowth parameters of banana The effect of different legume intercrops in on growthparameters of banana was presented in Table 1.Among the different growth parameters, intercropssignificantly influenced the plant height of banana,but the effect was non significant with respect topseudo stem circumference and number of leaves perplant of banana. Among the different intercrops tried,the plant height of banana was significantly maximumin T 4  -banana + cluster bean, which was on par to thatof T 8  - banana + field bean, T 6- banana + green gram,  Vol. 33, No. 2, April-June 20153Feasibility and Profitability of Legume Intercrops in Banana T 2 -banana + bush beans, T 3 - banana + dolichos beans,T 7 -banana +cow pea followed by T 5 - banana +blackgram and T 1 -sole banana. Yield attributes of banana Data presented in Table 1 represents the effect of sevenlegume intercrops on yield attributes, yield of bananaand B.C. ratio. Influence of intercrops on number offingers per bunch and number of hands per bunch ofbanana was not significant. Bunch weight (Kg) wassignificantly superior in intercropping T 8  - banana +field bean (26.33 kg) and in sole banana (24.03 kg)followed by T 5 - banana + black gram (22.33 kg), T 4  -banana + cluster beans (22.23 kg), T 3 - banana +dolichos beans (21.7 kg), T 7 - banana + cow pea (20.1kg), T 6 - banana + green gram (18.50 kg). The bunchweight was least with T 2 - banana + bush beans (17.5kg). Banana yield Intercropping of banana with cluster bean (T 4 ) (48.82)recorded highest banana yield (t/ha) which was onpar when intercropped with black gram (T 5 ) (48.14),field bean (T 8 ) (47.51), sole banana(T 1 ) (47.00 t/ha) anddolichos bean (T 3 ) (46.53) followed by intercroppingwith green gram(T 6 ) (45.82) and cowpea(T 7 ) (43.96).The least banana yield was recorded in intercroppingwith bush beans (T 4 ) (42.43). Generally legumes inassociation with non-legumes not only helps inutilization of the nitrogen being fixed in the currentgrowing season, but also helps in residual nutrientsbuild up of the soil. B.C. ratio Obviously intercropping is beneficial with most of thecrops. Highest Benefit cost ratio was recorded inintercropping with dolichos bean (2.49) which was onpar to that of cluster bean (2.37), black gram (2.37),field bean (2.29), bush beans (2.19), green gram (2.18)followed by cowpea (2.09) and Sole banana(1.98)(Table. 2).   Similarly Ajeet singh et al.,  [3] reported thatbased on the B: C ratio and equivalent yield of banana,it is found that banana+ onion ( 3.35 & 741.9 q )followed by banana+ cow pea ( 3.13 & 616.2 q ) aremore economical as intercrops without any adverseeffect on yield of banana. Besides additional income Table 1Growth characters, yield attributes and yield of banana as influenced by different legume intercrops in banana TreatmentsPlant heightPseudo stemNo. ofNo. ofNo. ofBunchBanana(m)circumferenceleaves perFingers/ bunchhands/bunchWeight (kg)yield(t/ ha)(m)plant T 1 : Sole banana1.920.6514.22169.679.0024.0347.00T 2 :Banana+Bush beans2.030.6714.22159.008.6717.542.43T 3 :Banana+Dolichos bean1.970.6013.77153.339.0021.746.53T 4 :Banana+Clusterbean2.090.6714.10162.009.3322.2348.82T 5 :Banana+Blackgram1.920.6213.88175.0010.022.3348.14T 6 :Banana+Greengram2.040.6514.45151.339.0018.5045.82T 7 :Banana+Cowpea1.990.6114.32161.679.3320.143.96T 8 :Banana+Field bean2.080.06214.00172.6710.0026.3347.51CD at 5%0.13NSNSNSNS3.8622.61 Table 2Effect of banana legume intercropping combinations on banana yield, intercrop yield, Banana equivalent yield, B.C ratio andLand equivalent ratio TreatmentsBanana YieldIntercropBananaB : C ratioLand equivalent(t/ ha)yield (t/ha)Equivalentratio(vegetable/seed)yield (t/ha) T 1 : Sole banana47.000471.981.00T 2 :Banana+Bush beans42.432.1342.322.191.44T 3 :Banana+Dolichos bean46.535.5345.922.491.48T 4 :Banana+Clusterbean48.822.6748.962.371.58T 5 :Banana+Blackgram48.140.548.512.371.49T 6 :Banana+Greengram45.820.5345.952.181.47T 7 :Banana+Cowpea43.960.6843.722.091.45T 8 :Banana+Field bean47.510.7547.762.291.49CD at 5%2.610.511.120.310.03  Lalitha Kadiri, B. Srinivasulu, C. Madhumati, S. Sadarunissa, D. Srinivasa Reddy and K. Gopal4International Journal of Tropical Agriculture © Serials Publications, ISSN: 0254-8755 these intercrops also help in reducing the cost ofcultivation. Banana equivalent yield Intercropping with cluster bean showed highestbanana equivalent yield (48.96 t/ha) which wascomparable with that of black gram followed by fieldbean and sole banana. It was lesser than sole bananain rest of the intercropping combinations (Table.2). Land equivalent ratio (LER) All the intercropping systems where the Landequivalent ratio (LER) was greater than one werefound to be advantageous. LER was significantlyhigher with cluster bean (1.58) followed by black gram(1.49), field bean (1.49), dolichos bean (1.48) and greengram (1.47) followed by cowpea (1.45) and bushbeans(1.44) (Table.2). The Land Equivalent Ratio value1.58 in banana + cluster bean indicates that byintercropping banana and cluster bean at a spacing2x2 m for both banana and cluster bean, a farmer couldproduce 48.82 tons of banana and 2.67 tons of clusterbean from one hectare of land instead of growing themseparately in 1.58 ha of land to obtain the samecombined yield. Similar result was observed byRehman et al  .[12] in banana + potato intercroppingand by Qasem et al . 9[11] in Chili + maizeintercropping. Conclusively Intercropping in bananacan be remunerative and minimize risks associatedwith cultivating a single crop which will ensure morestable subsistence in terms of food nutrition andpossible income. REFERENCES Adelana, B. O. (1984). Evaluation of maize tomato mixedcropping in south western Nigeria. Indian Journal of  Agricultural Sciences ,24 (7), 564-569.Adeoye, G. O., Sridhar, M. K. C., Adeoluwa, O. O., &Akinsoji, N. A. (2005). Evaluation of naturallydecomposed solid waste from municipal dump sitesfor their manurial value in southwest Nigeria.  Journalof Sustainable Agriculture, 26 (4) 143-152.Ajeet Singh, Jagannath Pathak, Mustafa M. M. and GautamU.S. (2012). Evaluation of different intercroppingoptions with banana in Nimar region of M.P. ProgressiveHorticulture.  44(2) : 342-343.Bhagad, S. B., Chavan, S. A., Zagade, M. V., & Dahiphale,A. V. (2006). Intercropping groundnut and sweet cornat different fertility levels and row proportions. Indian Journal of Crop Science, 1 (1-2), 151-153.Francis, C. A. (1986).  Multiple cropping systems . Macmillan,Newyork.Geiler, K. E., Ormesher, J., & Awa, F. M. (1991). Nitrogentransfer from Phaseolus bean to intercroppingmaizemeasured using 15-N enrichment and 15-Nisotope dilution methods. Soil Biol. Biochem, 23 , 239-246.Ijoyah, M. O., & Fanen, F. T. (2012). Effects of differentcropping pattern on performance of maize-soybeanmixture in Makurdi, Nigeria.  J. Crop Sci., 1 (2), 39-47.Qasem, A., N.A. Khondaker and M.M. Ullah, 1986. Chilli-Maize intercropping at different maize populations.Bangladesh J. Agric., 12: 155-159.Rahman M.Z., Rahman M.H., Haque M.E., Kabir M.H.,Naher S.L., Ferdaus K.M.K.B., Nazmul Huda A.K.M.,Imran M.S. and Khalekuzzaman M. Banana BasedIntercropping System in North-west Part ofBangladesh. Journal of Agronomy. 5 :228-231.Remison S. U. (1978). Neighbour effects between maize andcowpea at various levels of N and P. Expl. Agric., 14, 205-212.Shafik, M. M., & Soliman, A. M. (1999). Effect ofintercropping grain sorghum and soybean on yield andyield components. Proc.1st conf. Recent Technologies in Agric. Cairo Univ. 27-29, Nov. Vol. 11, 277-283 Thayamini, H. S., & Brintha, I. (2010). Review onMaize based intercropping.  Journal of Agronomy, 9 (3),135-145.
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