Fiber Optic Transmission Networks

1. Fiber Optic Transmission Networks Raghunath Kummaraguntla 2. Fiber Optic Transmission Networks 3. Topics <ul><li>Network Planning (Route Survey , RoW…
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  • 1. Fiber Optic Transmission Networks Raghunath Kummaraguntla
  • 2. Fiber Optic Transmission Networks
  • 3. Topics <ul><li>Network Planning (Route Survey , RoW issues, roll-out) </li></ul><ul><li>Network Implementation (cable Installation & Termination, Fiber management) </li></ul><ul><li>PDH hierarchy & systems </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to SDH/SONET Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Format for STS-1 (OC-1) stream </li></ul><ul><li>Format for STM-1,STM-4,STM-16 streams, </li></ul><ul><li>Network Elements in an SDH Network. </li></ul><ul><li>Overheads in STM-1 signal </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping the Virtual Containers VC-1,2,3 and Tributaries into VC-4 of STM-1 </li></ul><ul><li>In Service Testing </li></ul><ul><li>SDH Optical Networks(Linear, Ring) </li></ul><ul><li>Protection Switching Implemented in SDH. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical SDH Equipment Planning (TN-16X, TN-4XE, REG16,ADM16,REG4,ADM1) </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Power Budgeting for STM-16 Equipment </li></ul>
  • 4. Network planning OFC Network Planning   Ist Step: Route Survey.   Objective: To Asses the feasibility of alternative routes connecting rollout cities. Tools: Tourist Map, State map, District PWD map, Revenue map, Local Guidance. Points of Observation: Route name Brief about route (different sections of route i.e. towns, diversions, turning enroute Start and last point of route. Route length (measured with milometer or Km stones) Major Town/ commercial establishment on the route( Jurisdiction-MC/PWD) Villages & Towns with length Rivers/nallahs with details (Name,length,possible methods of crossing over/under/clamping etc) Bridges/culverts(Total no, Max width, total appox.length in each section & crossing methods) Railway crossings Road details (NH/SH/MCD/NHAI/Development agencies/panchayat/ Defense/) Road levels w.r.t ground (hilly terrain, embankment) Forest details Waterlogged area HT Lines details Details of existing OFC/Coax cables Gas pipeline , water pipe line crossings Future expansion plan of road Industrial Units Visible Rodent affected area Recommended location of ADM/Regenerators
  • 5. Network Implementation Fiber Packaging : The fibers shall be bundled in –groups of 6,8, 12 fibers. Two bundling threads or tapes helically wrapped on the fiber groups shall be colour coded in the order: Group#1 Blue, Group#2 Orange Group#3 Green Group#4 Brown Group#5 slate Group#6 White Group#7 Red Group#8 Black All the fibers in the bundle of 12 fiber shall be color coded with UV curable ink as : Fiber#1 Blue , Fiber#2 Orange, Fiber#3 Green, Fiber#4 Brown, Fiber#5 Slate, Fiber#6 White, Fiber#7 Red, Fiber#8 Black, Fiber#9 Yellow, Fiber#10 Violet, Fiber#11 Pink, Fiber#12 Natural, Optical Characteristics :
  • 9. PCM Sampling Speech Bandwidth 300 Hz to 3400 KHz Nyquist Theorem - 2 X to represent Signal Use 8KHz 128 Analogue levels, 8bit word 8000 Hz X 8 bits = 64 kb/s = 1 Voice Channel
  • 10. Multiplexing <ul><li>Mutiplexing allows multiple voice channels on one physical circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Two common methods in electrical domain </li></ul><ul><li>a) Time Division Multiplexing </li></ul><ul><li>b) Frequency Division Multiplexing </li></ul><ul><li>TDM Primary rates: </li></ul><ul><li>-2Mbps in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>- 1.544 Mbps in US, North America </li></ul>
  • 11. Synchronous Multiplexing
  • 13. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy <ul><li>Plesiochronous is derived from the Greek meaning 'almost synchronous’. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks of PDH </li></ul><ul><li>Complete de-multiplex required to access any particular channel. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Network Management information. </li></ul>
  • 15. Line coding used in PDH systems
  • 16. HDB3 Line coding
  • 17. 2.048 Mbps Frame structure 3.9 μ sec 1 Frame alignment word Network Signaling All time slots contain 8 bit words (PCM, Data, sub rate, n x 64 kbps 0 2 3..14 15 16 17..30 31 0 … .
  • 18. Frame Alignment (PCM 31)
  • 19. 8Mb/s Frame Structure
  • 20. 34 Mb/s Frame Structure
  • 21. Typical 140Mbps FOT System
  • 22. Typical 140 M OLTE MUX & DMUX : Multiplexer & De Multiplexer SD CH: Service Data Channel SYNC & S/P : Synchronizer and Serial-to-Parallel Converter UART: Universal Asynchronous Receiver/ Transmitter CC : Code Converter RSD INTF: Remote Service Data Interface.
  • 23. 140Mb/s Frame Structure
  • 24. Typical E-O Converter in 140 Mbps FOTS
  • 25. Typical O-E Conversion in 140Mb FOTS
  • 26. PDH Versus SDH <ul><li>SDH </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization between payload and Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Pointers allow Direct Access to Payload </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized from 155 Mb/s upwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Allocation easy </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Can carry existing & Future services </li></ul><ul><li>Protected Networks </li></ul><ul><li>PDH </li></ul><ul><li>No Synchronization between Payload & Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Demultiplexing required to access Payload </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized up to 140 Mb/s </li></ul>
  • 27. Introduction to SDH/Sonet Optical Level Electrical Level Line Rate (Mbps) Payload Rate (Mbps) Overhead Rate (Mbps) SDH Equivalent OC-1 STS-1 51.840 50.112 1.728 - OC-3 STS-3 155.520 150.336 5.184 STM-1 OC-9 STS-9 466.560 451.008 15.552 STM-3 OC-12 STS-12 622.080 601.344 20.736 STM-4 OC-18 STS-18 933.120 902.016 31.104 STM-6 OC-24 STS-24 1244.160 1202.688 41.472 STM-8 OC-36 STS-36 1866.240 1804.032 62.208 STM-13 OC-48 STS-48 2488.320 2405.376 82.944 STM-16 OC-96 STS-96 4976.640 4810.752 165.888 STM-32 OC-192 STS-192 9953.280 9621.504 331.776 STM-64
  • 28. Outline of Payload Structure in STM signal
  • 29. Serial Stream of STS-1 Signal
  • 30. STS-1, STM-1Frame comparison
  • 31. STS-1 Envelope
  • 32. Overhead layers
  • 33. Section &Line Overheads
  • 34. Pointers for Frame synchronization & bit stuffing
  • 35. Virtual Tributary into STS-1 signal     VT Type Bit Rate (Mbps) Size of VT VT 1.5 1.728 9 rows, 3 columns   VT 2 2.304 9 rows, 4 columns   VT 3 3.456 9 rows, 6 columns   VT 6 6.912 9 rows, 12 columns  
  • 36. Section Overheads in STM-1
  • 37. Putting 140 Mb/s into VC-4 of STM-1
  • 38. Multiplexing Hierarchy in Sonet/SDH
  • 39. Sonet/SDH Network Elements (Terminal Mux,REG,ADM,DXC
  • 40. Digital Loop Carrier
  • 41. Network Configuration(point-point,multipoint)
  • 42. Ring Network Configuration (BLSR (4-fiber) with diversity routing)
  • 43. Protection Switching in SDH <ul><li>Bridge: The action of transmitting identical traffic on both working &protection channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Switch: The action of selecting traffic from the protection channels rather than the working channels </li></ul>service protection service protection
  • 44. Sonet/SDH Capacity     SONET Signal Bit Rate (Mbps) SDH Signal SONET Capacity SDH Capacity STS–1, OC–1 51.840 STM–0 28 DS–1s or 1 DS–3 21 E1s STS–3, OC–3 155.520 STM–1 84 DS–1s or 3 DS–3s 63 E1s or 1 E4 STS–12, OC–12 622.080 STM–4 336 DS–1s or 12 DS–3s 252 E1s or 4 E4s STS–48, OC–48 2,488.320 STM–16 1,344 DS–1s or 48 DS–3s 1,008 E1s or 16 E4s STS–192, OC–192 9,953.280 STM–64 5,376 DS–1s or 192 DS–3s 4,032 E1s or 64 E4s Note: Although an SDH STM–1 has the same bit rate as the SONET STS–3, the two signals contain different frame structures. STM = synchronous transport module (ITU–T) STS = synchronous transfer signal (ANSI) OC = optical carrier (ANSI) ANSI Rate ITU–T Rate Signal           Bit Rate Channels Signal Digital Bit Rate Channels   DS–0 64 kbps 1 DS–0 64–kbps 64 kbps 1 64–kbps DS–1 1.544 Mbps 24 DS–0s E1 2.048 Mbps 1 E1 DS–2 6.312 Mbps 96 DS–0s E2 8.45 Mbps 4 E1s DS–3 44.7 Mbps 28 DS–1s E3 34 Mbps 16 E1s   not defined   E4 144 Mbps 64 E1s
  • 45. ITU-T G.Series key recommendations ITU-T G.series Description comment G.703 Physical/ Electrical characteristics of Hierarchical Digital Interfaces Electrical Interfaces coding, Output level, Mask G.707 Network Node Interface for SDH SDH mapping, Alarms, Overhead byte description G.783 Characteristics of SDH equipment functional blocks Automatic protection switching protocol linear networks & switching times. G.841 Types and characteristics of SDH network protection architectures Automatic protection switching protocol ring networks & switching times. G.957 Optical interfaces for equipment and systems relating to SDH Optical interfaces, optical receiver sensitivity, optical o/p power
  • 46. Typical System level Technical specifications of SDH Network Elements <ul><li>Aggregate Interfaces : </li></ul><ul><li>STM-1 Electrical G.703 </li></ul><ul><li>STM-1/4/16 Optical G.957 </li></ul><ul><li>Tributary interfaces : </li></ul><ul><li>2.048/34.368/139.264/155.52/Mb/s (G.703) </li></ul><ul><li>155Mb/s(G.957) </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization Interfaces: </li></ul><ul><li>I/p: 2.048 MHz network clock </li></ul><ul><li>2.048 Mb/s data signal (G.703) </li></ul><ul><li>STM-1 tributary port </li></ul><ul><li>STM-N aggregate signal </li></ul><ul><li>O/p : 2.048 MHz clock </li></ul><ul><li>2.048 Mb/s data signal (G.703) </li></ul><ul><li>Network Management Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Local Terminal interface: V.24 serial propriety (F Interface) </li></ul><ul><li>NMS Interface : Q3,X.25,Ethernet for lower layer </li></ul>
  • 47. Typical SDH ring at STM-1 Level
  • 48. STM-4 Ring
  • 49. STM-16 ring
  • 50. Optera LH1600
  • 51. Power Budget of STM-16 equipment
  • 52. References <ul><li>‘ Fundamentals of SDH’ courses on Telecommunication by Agilent Technologies India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ NEC 140Mbps Fiber Optic Transmission System’ of Regional Telecom Training Center. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ SONET/SDH online course’ of International Engineering Consortium </li></ul><ul><li>SDH Transmission Equipment Technical Documentation of Nortel Networks </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Fiber Optic Communication Technology’-D.K. Mynabaev and L.L. Scheiner, Pearson Education Asia ,2001 </li></ul>
  • 53. Thank you for Your Attention
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