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Final Year Project Proposal ZIGBEE AND GSM BASED GAS LEAKAGE MONITORING AND PROTECTION SYSTEM

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Final Year Project Proposal ZIGBEE AND GSM BASED GAS LEAKAGE MONITORING AND PROTECTION SYSTEM
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  Project Title: Zigbeeand GSM Based Gas Leakage Monitoring And Protection System Abstract: Advances in technology and industry leads to a rise in the living standards of people. However, this has also introduced a variety of serious problems, such as the undesired release of combustible and toxic gases which have become an essential part of domestic and industrial life. Therefore, detection and monitoring of gases have become a major problem in recent years. In this proposal, we propose method (model) for detection and monitoring gas leaks by using a gas sensor. A continuous time analog signal is obtained from the sensors and sent to a comparator which compare the signal and send it to the controller, controller send the gas detection information to the zigbee receiver side. On the receiver side controller take the information first it display the information of station on LCD and activates the relays of different protection components like, ventilation fan, buzzer, closing solenoid valve and open the emergency exit gate.Where owner/customer will also be informed by sending the SMS through GSM module. Introduction: The current era of high technology and industrial development lead to an incredible rise in living standards. However, this has also been accompanied by a variety of serious problems, such as the undesired release of various chemical pollutants, flammable and toxic gases etc. Organic fuels and other chemicals have  become an essential part of domestic as well as industrial life. Natural gas, which is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and formed primarily of methane, ethane, propane and butane is used in homes for cooking, heating and water heating. A natural gas leak can be dangerous, because it increases the risk of fire or explosion. The specific needs for gas detection have emerged particularly with these improvements and the awareness of the need to protect the environment. Therefore, to prevent or minimize the damage caused by those, monitoring and controlling systems that can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify the danger are needed. Gas leak detection is the process of identifying potentially hazardous gas leaks by means of various sensors. These sensors usually employ an audible alarm to alert people when a dangerous gas has been detected. Common sensors used today include Infrared Point Sensor, Ultrasonic gas detectors,Electrochemical gas detectors, and Semiconductor Sensors. More recently, infrared imaging sensors have come into use. All of these sensors are used for a wide range of applications, and can be found in industrial plants, refineries, wastewater treatment facilities, vehicles, and around the home. A gas detector is a device which detects the presence of various gases within an area, usually as part of a safety system. This type of equipment is used to detect a gas leak and interface with a control system so a process can be automatically shut down. A gas detector can also sound an alarm to operators in the area where the leak is occurring, giving them the opportunity to leave the area. This type of device is important because there are many gases that can be harmful to organic life, such as humans or animals. Gas detectors can be used to detect combustible,flammable and toxic gases, and oxygen depletion. This type of device is used widely in industry and can be  found in a variety of locations such as on oil rigs, to monitor manufacture processes and emerging technologies such as photovoltaic.They may also be used in firefighting. Gas detectors are usually battery operated. They transmit warnings via a series of audible and visible signals such as alarms and flashing lights, when dangerous levels of gas vapors are detected. As detectors measure a gas concentration, the sensor responds to a calibration gas, which serves as the reference point or scale. As a sensor’s detection exceeds a preset alarm l evel, the alarm or signal will be activated. As units, gas detectors are produced as portable or stationary devices. Originally, detectors were produced to detect a single gas, but modern units may detect several toxic or combustible gases, or even a combination of both types. The European Community has supported a research called the MINIGAS project that was coordinated by VTT Technical Research Center of Finland. This research project aims to develop new types of photonics-based gas sensors, and to support the creation of smaller instruments with equal or higher speed and sensitivity than conventional laboratory-grade gas detectors Figure 1: Gas Sensor  ZigBee, also known as IEEE 802.15.4, is a communications standard designed for low-power short-range communications between wireless devices. It is classified as a wireless personal area network (WPAN), a term that includes the Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.3) standard as well. The ZigBee standard has seen increasing interest from both commercial and military customers for applications such as wireless sensor networks, home automation, and industrial control. One interesting facet of the ZigBee standard is that it is designed so that devices can create a self-forming and self-healing ad hoc or mesh network. In this scenario, a central "PAN coordinator" device oversees the health of the network configuration. In recent years, sensor networks have been the subject of much research in military/battlefield applications as well. Thus, there is significant interest in using the ZigBee standard to define the communications links in ad hoc battlefield intelligence scenarios. Figure 2: Zigbee Module  Problem Statement:    The major problem is to detect the gas which has no smell.    Informing the main unit remotely, but reliably.    Taking safety precision to close the wall and informing the labors in industries, also providing the path for leaving that area.    Informing the owner on its cell phone and also displaying on LCD. Solution and Methodology: The best solution to tackle these problems is by using Zigbee and GSM based gas leackage monitoring and protection system. Microcontroller is the central part of the project which is controlling all the process like detecting the gas through gas sensor, through comparator, sending the gas detected information to the receiving side. Station 1 and 2 have unique bits of its identification controller of receiver sides decides on the basis of that bits and display the station no on LCD. Open and closing the emergency gate, start ventilation fan, closing the solenoid valve and controlling the buzzer. As controller doesn’t have enough power to control the relay directly so relay driver is used for operating the relays.where pin 10 and 11 of controller will be used to send the data from zigbee to zigbee and from GSM module to user cell phone. So the methodology we are using is quite simple and reliable and it needs the following components. 1.   Voltage regulator 2.   LED 3.   Diodes
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