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Fly ash

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fly ash utilization
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   1 FLYASH CONTENTS SECTION I PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS AND SPECIFICATION SECTION II PRODUCT APPLICATIONS SECTION III INDIAN MANUFACTURERS SECTION IV IMPORT/EXPORT LEVEL SECTION V PRICE DETAILS SECTION VI INDIAN DEMAND SECTION VII BROAD OUTLINE OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS SECTION VIII RAW MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS, UTILITY AND AVAILABILITY SECTION IX DISCUSSIONS ON ECONOMIC CAPACITY, PROJECT COST AND PROFITABILITY PROJECTIONS SECTION X SWOT ANALYSIS SECTION XI FACTORS INFLUENCING THE POSITION FOR A NEW INDUSTRY AND RECOMMENDATIONS   2 SECTION - I PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS AND SPECIFICATION 1.1. Source of Flyash Fly ash is an unavoidable solid waste product of coal-fired thermal power plants. Coal being the primary and principal source of electricity, the problem of fly ash disposal and/or utilization has assumed enormous proportions as the production of fly ash is of the order of 1 to 1.5 billion tonnes annually in the world. If ways are not found for recycling of fly ash, it could lead to serious disposal problems. This is because 1 MW of power from a thermal plant requires approximately one acre of land for disposal of the ash generated. 1.2 . Properties of Flyash:- Type Fine powders Colour Ash colour Odour Odourless Solubility Insoluble in water pH 7.4 (in 10% solution with distilled water) Particle size 16% of 150 micron 26% of 75 micron 16% of 59 micron 42% of less than 50 micron Bulk density 0.978 g/cc. 1.3. Properties of Flyash From selected Thermal Power Plants Name Fineness Aq/CM/G (Blaine) Lime reactivity in kg/cm 2  OS 3812 PL D Bandel 6250 57.0 Basin Bridge 4200 56.8 Bokaro (DVC) 6140 59.6 Delhi 3575 63.8 Chandrapura (DVC) 5700 50.0 Durgapur 4480 53.2 Ennore 5280 51.6 Harduagunj 3780 52.7 Kanpur(Panki) 6091 54.0 Palancha(AP) 3800 62.4 Badarpur 3800 54.0 Faridabad 3900 52.0 Patratu 4400 52.0 Durgapur(DPL) 4100 43.0   3 SECTION - II PRODUCT APPLICATIONS 2.1. General details The most obvious advantages fly ash offers over the cement materials is the cost savings. Ash offers chemical and physical advantages as well. The spherical shape of individual ash particles visible under a 30 power microscope makes the material easier to pump and finish than cement, which is made up of angular particles. Also fly ash's chemical make up lowers the heat of hydration for concrete, thereby reducing the level of thermal cracking that occurs during curing. This is critical in large structural applications, where cracks can allow water to seep into crude steel reinforcing bars. Large amounts of Flyash can be used in building roads and embankments, reclamation of low lying lands and refuse dumps, land filling, treatment of polluted waters and unsuitable soils for agriculture and extraction of some rare metals. While such uses hold great potential of bulk disposal, research and development during the past three decades has developed its use in building materials. Some important ones being i. Portland - Pozzalana cement ii. Ready mixed and precast flyash concrete blocks iii. Sintered flyash lightweight aggregate iv. Lime flyash cellular concrete v. Flyash bricks vi. Portland cement clinker vii. Oil well cement viii. Masonry cement Low Value Product * Used mine fills * Embankments * Backfills * Highway Base * Soil Stabilisiatione etc. * Structural fills * Water Dam Concrete   4 Medium Value Product * Light weight aggregate * Flyash Concrete * Pozzolana cement * Cellular Concrete * Bricks/Blocks * Grouting * Slabs & wall Panels * Prefabricated building blocks High Value Product * Metal Recovery (Aluminium & Iron) * Magnetite * Mineral Wool * Plaastic Fillers * Ceramics * Light weight refractory and pour basin manufacture * Ferro-silicon 2.2. Study on Flyash for back filling in mines Following the notification issued by the Centre to prevent dumping and disposal of fly ash discharged from coal/lignite based thermal power stations, the state-owned coal companies are poised to take a fresh initiative to utilise fly ash for back filling in underground mines. A number of studies have already been made to ascertain problems and prospects of hydraulic stowing with fly ash. Singereni Coal Company Ltd (SCCL) is reported to have approached the office of the Directorate-General of Mines Safety in Hyderabad for permission to use fly ash as stowing material. In the meantime, the Central Mining Research Institute (CMRI) at Dhanbad has successfully conducted experiments on fly ash stowing at the PK-1 incline of Manuguru area of SCCL with the financial support from Heavy Water Plant (HWP). Earlier, with financial assistance from Fly Ash Mission (FAM), CMRI had stowed 5,000 cubic metre of fly ash generated by Chandrapura super thermal power station of the Maharashtra State Electricity Board in the Durgapur Raitwari No.4 mine in the Chandrapura area of Western Coalfields Ltd (WCL). A report prepared by SCCL., has stated that there is a growing realisation that the future of thermal generation and coal industry are intertwined and that unless bulk disposal practices are restored -- such as back-filling in mines -- full utilisation of fly ash will not be possible. Therefore, the underground hydraulic stowing with fly ash has to be made technically feasible especially because the technology development made with regard to fly ash stowing in underground mines in countries like the US, the UK, Germany, Hungary and Poland has been quite successful. The fly ash is devoid of harmful carbonaceous material and has little affinity for spontaneous
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