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Formosat

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  Introduction As we know, satellite imagery provide an effective means of observing and quantifying the complexities of the surface of the earth. It allows you to see the world in a different way and is a huge information source at your finger tips as you look to increase your knowledge about our environment. The technologies behind the application of this imagery are mature and advances. They demonstrate excellent value for money as scientific tools in support of policy development and monitoring. Satellite imagery can give us a lot of information about our environment such as information on land cover, land use, habitats, landscape and infrastructure. Besides that, it also can give us a time series by acquiring images on multiple dates and capabilities to analyze map and monitor changes. Nowadays, there are a lot of satellite imagery can be use base on their purpose. Each of satellite image have their own purpose. One of the satellite imagery that still operate is Formosat 2. Formosat 2 satellite began its mission definition in 1999, and was launched in 2004. Now it has  been operated beyond its mission lifetime of five years. Originally its orbit is designed as a Sun-synchronous orbit with 14 revolutions per day to daily revisit Taiwan. However, the feature of one revolution passing Taiwan every day also applies to the coverage areas worldwide of the other thirteen revolutions. Therefore, the international marketing come after its launch. The image taken by the remote sensing instrument (RSI) on board is to have in the nadir direction a swath width of 24 km and a field of regard of ±45 degree for along-track and cross-track viewing. The resolutions of images are 2 m ground sampling distance (GSD) in panchromatic band and 8 m GSD in four Landsat-like multispectral bands, respectively. The satellite takes images with duty cycle of 8% in every orbit period of 102.9 minutes. The satellite possesses the features of daily repeat, high altitude, and large field of regard. The limit imaging up to the geographic poles enabled Formosat 2 taking the first high-resolution satellite image of the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station with 888 km altitude and 46 deg field of regard on 2006.10.6, which demonstrated that it was the only one high-resolution imaging satellite to completely and daily cover the worldwide areas. The daily repeat of Formosat 2 simplifies operations, scheduling, and processing, and the users are easy to request imaging for urgent needs. Formosat 2 has taken the first images and continuously monitoring after large disasters over the world to support the aftermath relief and precaution of secondary disasters, especially for the southern Asia tsunami on 2004.12.26, the Sichuan earthquake on 2008.5.12, the typhoon Morakot over Taiwan on 2009.8.8, and the Honduras earthquake on 2009.5.28. Formosat 2 2010 imaging events include Haiti earthquake, Chile earthquake, Jiashian earthquake, Qinghai earthquake, Volcano eruption in Iceland, Pakistan flood, Gansu flood, Petermann Glacier breakup, and New Zealand earthquake. It is worth to remark that the satellite take  images on the same day of the event in 7 hours for the Honduras earthquake and for the Chile earthquake in 8 hours. History Formosat 2 also known as Republic of China Satellite 2 (ROCSat-2). A public naming competition took place in Taiwan in 2004 with regard to the ROCSat 2 satellite program. At the end of this contest, the ROCSat 2 program was given the new name of FormoSat in December 2004. Hence, ROCSat 2 became FormoSat 2. The first remote sensing satellite developed by National Space Organization (NSPO), Formosat 2, successfully launched on May 21, 2004 onto the Sun-synchronous orbit located at 891 kilometers above ground. The main mission of Formosat 2 is to conduct remote sensing imaging over Taiwan and on terrestrial and oceanic regions of the entire earth. The images captured by Formosat 2 during daytime can be used for land distribution, natural resources research, environmental protection, disaster prevention and rescue work etc. When the satellite travels to the eclipsed zone, it will observe natural phenomena such as lighting in the upper atmosphere. The observation data can be used for further scientific experiments. Therefore, Formosat 2 carries both remote sensing and scientific observation tasks in its mission The Formosat 2 Image Processing System (IPS) is independently developed by NSPO. It is designed to process images by scheduling image taking operations according to the user's needs. After the images are taken, the data will be downloaded through X-band antenna, prossed by the IPS such as radiometric and geometric corrections and then filed and stored in the computers. These files will be delivered to the end users based on the clients' requests. The entire image processing system structure is shown in the following figure.    Specification of The Sensor  Formosat 2 Satellite Sensor Specifications Imaging Data Products ã B&W: 2 -m ã Color: 2 -m (merge) ã Multispectral (R, G, B, NIR): 8 -m ã Bundle (separate Pan and MS images) Spectral Bands ã P: 0.45 - 0.90 µm (Panchromatic) ã B1: 0.45 - 0.52 µm (Blue) ã B2: 0.52 - 0.60 µm (Green) ã B3: 0.63 - 0.69 µm (Red) ã B4: 0.76 - 0.90 µm (Near-infrared) Sensor Footprint 24 km x 24 km Revisit Interval Daily   Viewing Angles Cross-track and along-track (forward/aft): +/- 45° Satellite Tasking Yes - Panchromatic and multispectral images can be acquired at the same time   Image Dynamics 8 bits/pixel Image File Size (level 1A without metadata) ã MS: 35 Mb   ã Pan: 137 Mb    Data acquisition, determine on how this satellite acquired an image, describe the process. The FORMOSAT-2 ground system is responsible for the entire FORMOSAT-2 mission operations which include launch support, satellite operation, payload control, remote sensing - data receiving, processing, and transmission. The ground system performs operational functions such as command uplink, telemetry downlink, SATELLITE TRACKING, orbit and attitude control and calculation, etc. FORMOSAT-2 ground system consists of the Mission Operation Center (MOC), the Mission Control Center (MCC), the Flight Dynamic Facility (FDF), the Ground Communication Network (GCN), the Science Control Center (SCC), and the two S-band Telemetry, Tracking, and Command (TT&C) stations. Mission Operation Center is the command center which monitors the daily operations for FORMOSAT-2 mission. This center is able to monitor and operate the satellite through the two S-band TT&C stations located in northern and southern Taiwan. Through the data transmitted by the satellite, the MOC can analyze the current satellite status, deliver commands for satellite operation control, and process the scientific data. The NSPO ground system utilizes the remote tracking station (RTS) to establish the communication network in order to support the satellite mission operations. RTS can also transmit data to the Science Data Distribution Center for further distribution. The hardware and software system framework of the ground system is designed and open system architecture and modular design. Since launching the FORMOSAT-2, the ground system has successfully tracked and operated the satellite's flight operations. Satellite Operations Control  Center (SOCC)   The NSPO's SOCC is responsible for the FORMOSAT-2's mission operations. The SOCC utilizes a single software platform to simultaneously operate multiple satellite systems, including subsystems such as mission control, flight track facility, mission control, science control, and ground communication network. The software can provide functions such as instant monitoring of satellite data downlink transmission, command uplink, satellite orbit forecast, identification, satellite operation scheduling, intercept and transmit scientific data, and to integrate internal and external communication networks. Through communication networks, the SOCC can control the two S-Band TT&C stations in Central University and in National Cheng Kung University and the X-band Remote Sensing Data Receiving station in Hsinchu. The communication network also allows the data transmission among SOCC and the Image Processing Center, Science Data Distribution Center (SDDC), and the RTS in Sweden. S-Band TT&C Station  The communication operation such as Telemetry, Tracking, and Command are conducted by the NSPO's TT&C stations located in National Central University (Chungli) and National Cheng Kung University (Tainan). The north and south TT&C stations are
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